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ARTICLE |

THE PRESENT STATUS OF CARDIODYNAMIC STUDIES ON NORMAL AND PATHOLOGIC HEARTS

CARL J. WIGGERS, M.D.
Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1921;27(4):475-502. doi:10.1001/archinte.1921.00100100091009.
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The experimental or clinical investigator who essays to study circulatory problems that directly concern vital phases of medicine is frequently handicapped because certain fundamental data, which are the key to the interpretation of these problems, are not included in our stock of general information. It is desirable, therefore, first to review briefly some recent experiments which, I believe, help to clarify our understanding of the normal contraction processes in the heart. This accomplished, the laws which govern cardiac behavior will be analyzed. Finally, an effort will be made to see how far these laws may be applied in the interpretation of pathologic conditions with which we are confronted in the clinic.

I. THE FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS OF THE HEART RATE 

The Physiology of Auricular Systole.  —The cardiac cycle is generally described as consisting of auricular systole, followed promptly by ventricular systole and diastole. It has long been known that certain quantitative

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