Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1920;25(4):429-448. doi:10.1001/archinte.1920.00090330096006.
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Castellani1 noted in soldiers of the Italian Army the not infrequent occurrence of an affection of the respiratory tract which he had described previously at Ceylon, and of which he had recognized the specific agent. This affection he had termed bronchospirochetosis. It appears under two aspects: A form of short duration, lasting from one to three weeks, and running its course after the fashion of an acute bronchitis, with fairly high temperature during the early days; a form with a prolonged course simulating a chronic bronchopneumonia of long duration, several years in most cases, but sometimes taking on a malignant character, with irregular fever, hemoptysis, progressive enfeeblement and emaciation, and lethal termination.

The specific parasite is a spirillum, Spirochaeta bronchialis, very polymorphous, from 4 to 30 microns long, 0.2 to 0.6 micron in thickness, presenting from two to eight undulations and sometimes more, the extremities of variable shape, often pointed


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