The sample included 4780 adults 35 years and older (mean [SD] age, 52.2 [4.5] years; 56.4% female) measured in the 2003 Scottish Health Survey; 77% of eligible households took part in the survey. Participants gave full informed consent to participate in the study, and ethical approval was obtained from the London Research Ethics Council. We linked these data to records of hospital admissions and mortality with follow-up until December 2007; thus, the analyses were based on a prospective cohort design, as described previously.4 The main exclusion criterion for the present analysis was a history of clinically confirmed CVD, which was identified from retrospective patient hospital records. Survey interviewers visited eligible households and collected data on demographics and lifestyle (eg, smoking, alcohol, physical activity) variables, measured height and weight, and administered the SF-12 that assesses 8 attributes of functional health status and has demonstrated strong validity and reliability.5 We used one of the SF-12 subscales (PCS) as an indicator of physical functional health; the raw scores are transformed into a scale of 0 to 100, representing poor to good health, respectively. On a separate visit, nurses collected clinical data (medical history, medication, and 3 seated blood pressure readings).