This was a post hoc analysis of randomized controlled trials3- 5 to see whether adiponectin levels were related to success in achieving lifestyle changes. A total of 410 subjects (219 men and 191 women) were originally randomized to an intervention group, based on improvement of quality of diet and increased physical activity, or to a control group (general information about healthy food choices and exercise). The goals of the dietary intervention were a reduction in intake of saturated fat to less than 10% of energy consumed, an increase in intake of monounsaturated fat to 10% or more of energy consumed, and an increase in fiber intake to at least 15 g per 1000 kcal. The goal of physical activity was moderate exercise for at least 30 min/d for at least 5 d/wk. Frequent ingestion of whole-grain products, vegetables, fruits, nuts, low-fat milk, and olive oil was recommended. The subjects also received individual guidance on increasing their level of physical activity: endurance exercise (such as walking, jogging, swimming, aerobic ball games, or skiing) was recommended. The study subjects were ranked according to their success in achieving the goals of the intervention at the 4-year examination. We calculated the percentage of subjects in both groups who had an adiponectin level of 1 μg/mL or more above the median of the sample in each success score category (0, no goal achieved; 1, dietary goal achieved; 2, physical activity goal achieved; and 3, dietary + physical activity goals achieved). Adiponectin levels were assayed with a radioimmunoassay from Linco Research, St Charles, Missouri, which has an intra-assay coefficient of variation of 1.78% to 6.21%.