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Original Investigation |

High Attributable Risk of Elevated C-Reactive Protein Level to Conventional Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors:  The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey FREE

Michael Miller, MD; Min Zhan, PhD; Stephen Havas, MD, MPH, MS
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Departments of Medicine (Drs Miller and Havas) and Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (Drs Miller, Zhan, and Havas), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.


Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(18):2063-2068. doi:10.1001/archinte.165.18.2063.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background  C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, is predictive of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. However, the extent to which high CRP levels (>3 mg/L) may be attributable to high cholesterol levels and other CHD risk factors has not been well defined.

Methods  The prevalence of high CRP levels in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 15 341) was studied using CHD risk-factor cut points designated as abnormal (total cholesterol values, ≥240 mg/dL [≥6.22 mmol/L]; fasting blood glucose levels, ≥126 mg/dL [≥6.99 mmol/L]; blood pressure, ≥140/90 mm Hg; body mass index [BMI], ≥30 kg/m2; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values, <40 mg/dL [<1.04 mmol/L] for men and <50 mg/dL [<1.30 mmol/L] for women; triglyceride levels, ≥200 mg/dL [≥2.26 mmol/L]; current smoking status) or borderline (total cholesterol values, 200-239 mg/dL [5.18-6.19 mmol/L]; fasting blood glucose levels, 100-125 mg/dL [5.55-6.94 mmol/L]; blood pressure, 120-139/80-89 mm Hg; BMI, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2, and triglyceride values 150-199 mg/dL [1.70-2.25 mmol/L], former smoking status), or normal.

Results  Weighted multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that high CRP level was significantly more common with obesity (odds ratio [OR], 3.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.28-4.35]), overweight (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.62-2.18), and diabetes (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.54-2.38) and that high CRP level was rare in the absence of any borderline or abnormal CHD risk factor in men (4.4%) and women (10.3%). Overall, the risk of elevated CRP level attributable to the presence of any abnormal or borderline CHD risk factor was 78% in men and 67% women.

Conclusions  These data suggest that elevated CRP levels in the general population are in large measure attributable to traditional CHD risk factors. Moreover, CRP level elevation is rare in the absence of borderline or abnormal risk factors. As such, CRP measurements may have limited clinical utility as a screening tool beyond other known CHD risk factors.

Figures in this Article

Inflammation has been implicated in the origination and progression of cardiovascular disease,1 and among the most actively studied biomarkers is C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase reactant released predominantly by hepatocytes.2 While low-grade inflammation is predictive of coronary heart disease (CHD),3 even in the absence of elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels,4 the extent to which high CRP level is attributable to well-established CHD risk factors has not been well studied. This is an important issue to investigate in view of the numerous proponents for or against CRP level as a CHD screening tool58 and a recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association scientific statement9 reserving CRP measurements for those patients at intermediate CHD risk (defined as a 10-year CHD risk range of 10%-20%). If elevated CRP level is intimately linked to conventional CHD risk factors, then routine screening of this biomarker would seemingly be less valuable to clinicians. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the extent to which high CRP levels (>3 mg/L) may simply reflect expression of the pathobiologic changes induced by conventional CHD risk factors.

The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)10 was conducted between 1988-1994 and used a stratified, multistage, probability sampling design to produce estimates generalizable to the US population. A total of 20 050 adults 18 years or older were screened for the study. A total of 15 341 subjects were included in the study, excluding subjects with any of the following data points missing from the record: CRP values (n = 3081), glucose levels (n = 1394), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (n = 84), triglyceride levels (n = 80), body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) (n = 32), blood pressure values (n = 29), race designation (n = 8), and smoking status (n = 1). The dependent variable, serum CRP concentrations, was measured at the University of Washington Department of Laboratory Medicine using a Behring (Dade Behring, Deerfield, Ill) latex-enhanced nephelometer analyzer system; the assay was not of high sensitivity. We defined elevated levels of CRP as greater than 3 mg/L based on the recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association scientific statement.9

Established cut points were used for the categorical variables in defining normal, borderline, or abnormal CHD risk factors. They included cigarette smoking (never, former, or current); blood pressure (normal, <120/80 mm Hg; prehypertension, 120-139/80-89 mm Hg; and hypertension, ≥140/90 mm Hg or receiving blood pressure medications)11; fasting glucose levels (normal, <100 mg/dL [<5.55 mmol/L]; pre–diabetes mellitus, 100-125 mg/dL [5.55-6.94 mmol/L]; and diabetes mellitus, ≥126 mg/dL [≥6.99 mmol/L] or receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents)12; total cholesterol levels (normal, <200 mg/dL [<5.18 mmol/L]; borderline high, 200-239 mg/dL [5.18-6.19 mmol/L]; and high, ≥240 mg/dL [≥6.22 mmol/L] or receiving lipid-lowering medications)13; triglyceride levels (normal, <150 mg/dL [<1.70 mmol/L]; borderline high, 150-199 mg/dL [1.70-2.25 mmol/L]; and high, ≥200 mg/dL [≥2.26 mmol/L] or receiving lipid-lowering medications)13; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values (normal, ≥40 mg/dL [≥1.04 mmol/L] in men and ≥50 mg/dL [≥1.30 mmol/L] in women; low, <40 mg/dL [<1.04 mmol/L] in men and <50 mg/dL [<1.30 mmol/L] in women)13; and BMI (normal, <25; overweight, 25-29; and obese, ≥30).14 We selected total cholesterol rather than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol because of the high number of missing values for the latter (n = 7829). Finally, we also classified physical activity into 4 categories: vigorous activity, moderate activity, light activity, and sedentary as previously defined.15 We also determined the use of estrogen replacement therapy in women who had surgical or natural menopause.

The association between CHD risk factors and the prevalence of elevated CRP levels was assessed using χ2 tests. Additional analyses were conducted using SAS statistical software, version 9 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC). Because NHANES III oversampled minority populations, weighted analyses were performed to ensure that results were generalizable to US population demographics (SAS/STAT, version 9.1). The odds ratio of elevated CRP levels was determined in the presence (or absence) of each of the above CHD risk factors, and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by a multiple logistic regression model that used survey weights. The attributable risk of elevated CRP level due to one or more CHD risk factors was computed using the following formula: (PD/E – PD/Ē) NE/ND, where PD/E is the weighted percentage of high CRP levels with abnormal or borderline CHD risk factors, PD/Ē is the weighted percentage of high CRP levels without CHD risk factors, NE is the number of estimated individuals with abnormal or borderline CHD risk factors in the population, and ND is the estimated total number of cases in the population.

A total of 15 341 adult men and women were included in the analysis. Table 1 provides baseline and demographic information of the NHANES III cohort.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Baseline Characteristics of the NHANES III10 Cohort*

The frequency and prevalence of high CRP levels for each of the CHD risk factors are listed in Table 2. Blacks had higher CRP levels than whites. Overall, there were marked increases in the prevalence of elevated CRP levels especially associated with higher blood pressure, glucose levels, and BMI. Compared with never smokers, high CRP level was more common in both former and active cigarette smokers. A graded increase in the prevalence of high CRP levels was also apparent as blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and BMI cut points increased from normal to borderline and abnormal levels, with larger increases occurring between borderline and abnormal ranges. Similar changes were also observed in univariate analysis comparing sedentary and physically active subjects.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Prevalence of High C-Reactive Protein Levels Based on Univariate Analysis of Ethnicity and Coronary Heart Disease Risk factors

The overall prevalence of elevated CRP level was 25.7%. Compared with subjects who never smoked cigarettes and were normotensive, normolipidemic, euglycemic, and not overweight (n = 813), the presence of at least 1 borderline or abnormal CHD risk factor (n = 14 528) was associated with an approximate 3-fold higher prevalence of CRP level higher than 3 mg/L (8.7% vs 26.7%) (P<.001) (Figure). Only 4.4% of men and 10.3% of women with a favorable risk-factor profile had elevated CRP levels. In the presence of any borderline CHD risk factor, high CRP level increased 1.5- to 2-fold and approximately 3- to 5-fold with at least 1 abnormal CHD risk factor.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure.

Prevalence of high C-reactive protein levels in men and women based on coronary heart disease risk factors (cigarette smoking, borderline or elevated blood pressure, impaired fasting glucose level or diabetes mellitus, borderline-high or high cholesterol levels, borderline-high or high triglyceride levels, elevated body mass index, and low high-density lipoprotein levels, as specified in the “Methods” section). Asterisk indicates P<.001 within sex. Prevalence of high C-reactive protein level was significantly higher in women than in men (30.95% vs 19.7%; P<.001).

Graphic Jump Location

The prevalence of elevated CRP level was also higher among postmenopausal women receiving estrogen replacement therapy (51%; n = 473) than among estrogen nonusers or former users (37%; n = 3105) (P<.001). These data are consistent with previous studies that have shown higher CRP levels in women than in men16 and higher levels in women undergoing estrogen replacement therapy than in women not undergoing such therapy.17,18 However, because of the small number of women receiving estrogen replacement therapy, this variable was not included in our multiple logistic regression model.

The inclusion of moderate and/or vigorous physical activity sharply reduced the number of men and women without any CHD risk factors from 813 to 71 of 15 341 subjects. Because only a very small fraction of these normal subjects had elevated CRP levels (n = 7, or 0.05% of the total cohort), physical activity was not included in multiple logistic regression analysis.

Weighted multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and race identified the factors that were most highly associated with elevated CRP level: excess weight, hypertension, female sex, diabetes, cigarette smoking, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values (Table 3). Table 4 demonstrates that the attributable risk of high CRP level in men and women was primarily accounted for by the presence of at least 1 abnormal CHD risk factor. In NHANES III, the attributable risk of high CRP level for the presence at least 1 abnormal or borderline CHD risk factor was approximately 78% for men and 67% for women.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Weighted Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis of High C-Reactive Protein Level and Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Attributable Risk of High C-Reactive Protein Level in Men and Women With at Least 1 Borderline or Abnormal CHD Risk Factor*

Until recently, many believed that only 50% of CHD was accounted for by traditional risk factors such as cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high blood cholesterol level.19 This in turn led to intensive investigations to uncover other potentially important biomarkers influencing atherothrombosis and CHD risk. Among the numerous markers surveyed, CRP level has been the most thoroughly examined with more than 1900 entries in PubMed during the past 9 years. However, recent studies have affirmed that traditional risk factors account for the overwhelming majority of CHD cases in the United States.2022

The present study reinforces the central role that traditional CHD risk factors play in atherothrombosis by demonstrating that a pivotal biomarker of systemic inflammation, elevated CRP level, is generally accompanied by borderline or abnormal CHD risk factors and rarely occurs in their absence. Thus, while these data in no way negate the important influence that inflammation plays in promoting or accelerating CHD,23 they underscore the likely role that well-established risk factors contribute to the inflammatory process. Several lines of evidence support a strong interrelationship between inflammatory biomarkers and CHD risk factors. For example, hepatic production of CRP is up-regulated by visceral adipocyte-mediated secretion of inflammatory cytokines.24 In addition to interleukin 6 and nuclear factor κ, other proinflammatory mediators released from adipocytes, notably angiotensin II, contribute to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and systemic hypertension.25,26 The present study reaffirms that elevated CRP level is strongly correlated with measures of adiposity27 as defined by BMI measurements for overweight and obesity. These close-knit relationships make it difficult to disentangle the distinctive impact of CRP level beyond well-established risk factors.

Moreover, the treatments commonly used to reduce conventional CHD risk factors also lower CRP levels.2831 Therefore, given the tight interrelationship between systemic inflammation and CHD risk factors, and in view of the extremely low prevalence of high CRP level in the absence of the 8 risk factors in NHANES III (ie, 0.05%), it is difficult, if not impossible, to prove the “CRP hypothesis” (ie, reduction of CRP level independently diminishes CHD event rates). This would necessitate the development of targeted agents that would lower CRP levels and reduce CHD without affecting values for lipids, blood pressure, glucose, and visceral adiposity.

Unless these concerns can be assuaged, we do not recommend screening for elevated CRP levels. In fact, CRP screening may be counterproductive because finding normal levels (<1 mg/L) could dissuade patients and physicians from using intensive lifestyle therapy that might prove useful. For example, a low CRP level (<1 mg/dL) in an overweight, dyslipidemic, prehypertensive, or prediabetic subject might provide false reassurance that no further therapy is required. However, failure to institute lifestyle strategies aimed at normalizing body weight, lipid levels, blood pressure, and glucose values leads to greater disease progression and increased CHD event rates,32 regardless of CRP levels. In an era where obesity-related illnesses have grown to epidemic proportions,33 more intensive efforts should be directed toward eradicating the primary culprit of elevated CRP levels, visceral adiposity.

There are several limitations associated with the present study. First, to circumvent oversampling of selected groups in NHANES III (eg, blacks), weighted analyses were performed. Second, the highly sensitive CRP assay currently in widespread use, enabling detection of lower CRP levels (eg, <2.1 mg/L), was not used in NHANES III. While this shortcoming did not affect the primary question raised in the present study related to high CRP level, it restricted further analyses using moderate to high CRP cut points (ie, 1-3 mg/L).34 Third, 15% of the cohort had missing data for CRP levels, resulting mostly from refusal to have blood drawn or insufficient blood sampling. However, there were no material differences in demographic characteristics between the subjects with and without blood for analysis. Finally, the objective cut points used to define normal, borderline, and abnormal lipid levels, blood pressure, glucose values, and measures of adiposity were considerably easier to quantify in NHANES III compared with more subjective risk factors, such as mental stress.

Even though a strong association between CRP level and overall CHD risk exists, 1 cross-sectional study did not demonstrate that CRP level correlated with individual CHD risk factors.35 However, the size of that cohort was considerably smaller than NHANES III (n = 1666 vs 15 341), and measures of adiposity, the most powerful variable influencing CRP level, were not undertaken. Because the presence of multiple risk factors (as opposed to a single factor) increases the likelihood of CHD,36 focusing on individual parameters may underestimate overall CHD risk, especially in the United States, where the prevalence of multiple risk factors (eg, metabolic syndrome) is high.37 In the present study, elevated CRP level was very prevalent in the presence of at least 1 borderline or abnormal risk factor.

Based on the recent results of the INTERHEART study38 of about 30 000 people, where 90% of CHD could be accounted for by 9 measures of risk (abdominal obesity, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, abnormal lipids [apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio], low consumption of fruits and vegetables, physical inactivity, and psychosocial factors), it is tempting to speculate that a similarly high attributable risk relating CRP level and CHD risk factors might have been ascertained had NHANES III enrolled twice the number of subjects and been able to measure parameters such as physical activity with greater precision.

In summary, these data suggest that elevated CRP level is primarily attributable to traditional CHD risk factors. As such, measurement of CRP levels may have limited clinical utility as a screening tool for CHD risk assessment unless randomized clinical trials can demonstrate that lowering CRP levels offsets CHD events beyond well-established lifestyle and pharmacologic modalities. In the meantime, more intensified efforts should be aimed at promotion of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and lowering of elevated blood pressure, lipid levels, and visceral adiposity because all have proven impact on CHD reduction.

Correspondence: Michael Miller, MD, Division of Cardiology, Room S3B06, 22 S Greene St, Baltimore, MD 21201 (mmiller@heart.umaryland.edu).

Accepted for Publication: March 17, 2005.

Financial Disclosure: None.

Funding/Support: This work was supported in part by National Institutes of Health grant HL-61369 and a Veterans Affairs Merit Award to Dr Miller.

Previous Presentations: This study was presented in part at the American Heart Association Annual Scientific Sessions; November 8, 2004; New Orleans, La.

Acknowledgment: The authors acknowledge Laurence Magder, PhD, for helpful discussions related to statistical methods.

Benzaquen  LRYu  HRifai  N High sensitivity C-reactive protein: an emerging role in cardiovascular risk assessment. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2002;39459- 497
PubMed
MacIntyre  SSSchultz  DKushner  I Synthesis and secretion of C-reactive protein by rabbit primary hepatocyte cultures. Biochem J 1983;210707- 715
PubMed
Ridker  PMCushman  MStampfer  MJTracy  RPHennekens  CH Inflammation, aspirin, and risks of cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy men. N Engl J Med 1997;336973- 979
PubMed
Ridker  PMRifai  NRose  LBuring  JECook  NR Comparison of C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2002;3471557- 1565
PubMed
Foody  JMGotto  AMWenger  N C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2004;351295- 298
PubMed
Ridker  PMKoenig  WFuster  V C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2004;351295- 298
PubMed
Danesh  JWheeler  JGHirschfield  GM  et al.  C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2004;3501387- 1397
PubMed
Tall  AR C-reactive protein reassessed. N Engl J Med 2004;3501450- 1452
PubMed
Pearson  TAMensah  GAAlexander  RW  et al.  Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2003;107499- 511
PubMed
 Plan and operation of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-1994; series 1: programs and collections procedure. Vital Health Stat July1994;321- 407
Chobanian  AVBakris  GLBlack  HR  et al.  Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension 2003;421206- 1252
PubMed
Genuth  SAlberti  KGBennett  P  et al.  Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003;263160- 3167
PubMed
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001;2852486- 2497
PubMed
 Executive summary of the clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Arch Intern Med 1998;1581855- 1867
PubMed
Ford  ES Does exercise reduce inflammation? Physical activity and C-reactive protein among U.S. adults. Epidemiology 2002;13561- 568
PubMed
McConnell  JPBranum  ELBallman  KVLagerstedt  SAKatzmann  JAJaffe  AS Gender differences in C-reactive protein concentrations-confirmation with two sensitive methods. Clin Chem Lab Med 2002;4056- 59
PubMed
Ridker  PMHennekens  CHRifai  NBuring  JEManson  JE Hormone replacement therapy and increased plasma concentration of C-reactive protein. Circulation 1999;100713- 716
PubMed
Cushman  M Hormone therapies and vascular outcomes: who is at risk? J Thromb Thrombolysis 2003;1687- 90
PubMed
Futterman  LGLemberg  L Fifty percent of patients with coronary artery disease do not have any of the conventional risk factors. Am J Crit Care 1998;7240- 244
PubMed
Magnus  PBeaglehole  R The real contribution of the major risk factors to the coronary epidemics: time to end the “only-50%” myth. Arch Intern Med 2001;1612657- 2660
PubMed
Greenland  PKnoll  MDStamler  J  et al.  Major risk factors as antecedents of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease events. JAMA 2003;290891- 897
PubMed
Khot  UNKhot  MBBajzer  CT  et al.  Prevalence of conventional risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. JAMA 2003;290898- 904
PubMed
Ridker  PMBrown  NJVaughan  DEHarrison  DGMehta  JL Established and emerging plasma biomarkers in the prediction of first atherothrombotic events. Circulation 2004;109 ((suppl 1)) IV6- IV19
PubMed
Hak  AEStehouwer  CDBots  ML  et al.  Associations of C-reactive protein with measures of obesity, insulin resistance, and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy, middle-aged women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;191986- 1991
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PubMed
Lemieux  IPascot  APrud'homme  D  et al.  Elevated C-reactive protein: another component of the atherothrombotic profile of abdominal obesity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21961- 967
PubMed
Ridker  PMCannon  CPMorrow  D  et al.  C-reactive protein levels and outcomes after statin therapy. N Engl J Med 2005;35220- 28
PubMed
Nissen  SETuzcu  EMSchoenhagen  P  et al.  Statin therapy, LDL cholesterol, C-reactive statin therapy and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2005;35229- 38
PubMed
Gaede  PVedel  PLarsen  NJensen  GVParving  HHPedersen  O Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2003;348383- 393
PubMed
Backes  JMHoward  PAMoriarty  PM Role of C-reactive protein in cardiovascular disease. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38110- 118
PubMed
Sacks  FMKatan  M Randomized clinical trials on the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on plasma lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 2002;113 ((suppl 9B)) 13S- 24S
PubMed
Mokdad  AHFord  ESBowman  BA  et al.  Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA 2003;28976- 79
PubMed
Ridker  PM C-reactive protein: a simple test to help predict risk of heart attack and stroke. Circulation 2003;108e81- e85
PubMed
Albert  MAGlynn  RJRidker  PM Plasma concentration of C-reactive protein and the calculated Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Score. Circulation 2003;108161- 165
PubMed
Yusuf  HRGiles  WHCroft  JBAnda  RFCasper  ML Impact of multiple risk factor profiles on determining cardiovascular disease risk. Prev Med 1998;271- 9
PubMed
Ford  ESGiles  WHDietz  WH Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 2002;287356- 359
PubMed
Yusuf  SHawken  SOunpuu  S  et al.  Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004;364937- 952
PubMed

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure.

Prevalence of high C-reactive protein levels in men and women based on coronary heart disease risk factors (cigarette smoking, borderline or elevated blood pressure, impaired fasting glucose level or diabetes mellitus, borderline-high or high cholesterol levels, borderline-high or high triglyceride levels, elevated body mass index, and low high-density lipoprotein levels, as specified in the “Methods” section). Asterisk indicates P<.001 within sex. Prevalence of high C-reactive protein level was significantly higher in women than in men (30.95% vs 19.7%; P<.001).

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Baseline Characteristics of the NHANES III10 Cohort*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Prevalence of High C-Reactive Protein Levels Based on Univariate Analysis of Ethnicity and Coronary Heart Disease Risk factors
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Weighted Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis of High C-Reactive Protein Level and Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Attributable Risk of High C-Reactive Protein Level in Men and Women With at Least 1 Borderline or Abnormal CHD Risk Factor*

References

Benzaquen  LRYu  HRifai  N High sensitivity C-reactive protein: an emerging role in cardiovascular risk assessment. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2002;39459- 497
PubMed
MacIntyre  SSSchultz  DKushner  I Synthesis and secretion of C-reactive protein by rabbit primary hepatocyte cultures. Biochem J 1983;210707- 715
PubMed
Ridker  PMCushman  MStampfer  MJTracy  RPHennekens  CH Inflammation, aspirin, and risks of cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy men. N Engl J Med 1997;336973- 979
PubMed
Ridker  PMRifai  NRose  LBuring  JECook  NR Comparison of C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2002;3471557- 1565
PubMed
Foody  JMGotto  AMWenger  N C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2004;351295- 298
PubMed
Ridker  PMKoenig  WFuster  V C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2004;351295- 298
PubMed
Danesh  JWheeler  JGHirschfield  GM  et al.  C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2004;3501387- 1397
PubMed
Tall  AR C-reactive protein reassessed. N Engl J Med 2004;3501450- 1452
PubMed
Pearson  TAMensah  GAAlexander  RW  et al.  Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2003;107499- 511
PubMed
 Plan and operation of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-1994; series 1: programs and collections procedure. Vital Health Stat July1994;321- 407
Chobanian  AVBakris  GLBlack  HR  et al.  Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension 2003;421206- 1252
PubMed
Genuth  SAlberti  KGBennett  P  et al.  Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003;263160- 3167
PubMed
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001;2852486- 2497
PubMed
 Executive summary of the clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Arch Intern Med 1998;1581855- 1867
PubMed
Ford  ES Does exercise reduce inflammation? Physical activity and C-reactive protein among U.S. adults. Epidemiology 2002;13561- 568
PubMed
McConnell  JPBranum  ELBallman  KVLagerstedt  SAKatzmann  JAJaffe  AS Gender differences in C-reactive protein concentrations-confirmation with two sensitive methods. Clin Chem Lab Med 2002;4056- 59
PubMed
Ridker  PMHennekens  CHRifai  NBuring  JEManson  JE Hormone replacement therapy and increased plasma concentration of C-reactive protein. Circulation 1999;100713- 716
PubMed
Cushman  M Hormone therapies and vascular outcomes: who is at risk? J Thromb Thrombolysis 2003;1687- 90
PubMed
Futterman  LGLemberg  L Fifty percent of patients with coronary artery disease do not have any of the conventional risk factors. Am J Crit Care 1998;7240- 244
PubMed
Magnus  PBeaglehole  R The real contribution of the major risk factors to the coronary epidemics: time to end the “only-50%” myth. Arch Intern Med 2001;1612657- 2660
PubMed
Greenland  PKnoll  MDStamler  J  et al.  Major risk factors as antecedents of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease events. JAMA 2003;290891- 897
PubMed
Khot  UNKhot  MBBajzer  CT  et al.  Prevalence of conventional risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. JAMA 2003;290898- 904
PubMed
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PubMed
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