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Original Investigation |

Impact of Zanamivir on Antibiotic Use for Respiratory Events Following Acute Influenza in Adolescents and Adults FREE

Laurent Kaiser, MD; Oliver N. Keene, MA, MS; Janet M. J. Hammond, MD; Mike Elliott, MD; Frederick G. Hayden, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

The Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Epidemiology and Virology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville (Drs Kaiser and Hayden); Glaxo Wellcome Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC (Drs Elliot and Hammond); and Glaxo Wellcome Research and Development, Greenford, England (Mr Keene). Dr Kaiser is now with the Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.


Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(21):3234-3240. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.21.3234.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background  Influenza infections commonly lead to respiratory tract complications that result in antibiotic treatment.

Objectives  To determine frequency of respiratory events leading to antibiotic use following influenza illness in adolescents and adults, and to assess whether treatment with topical zanamivir prevents these complications.

Methods  Meta-analysis of 7 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials; 3815 mainly healthy adolescents and adults (mean age, 34 years) with an influenzalike illness of less than 2 days' duration were randomly assigned to receive combined inhaled and intranasal zanamivir, inhaled zanamivir, or corresponding placebos. Twelve percent of enrolled subjects were high-risk patients. The main outcome was the incidence of respiratory events leading to antibiotic prescriptions in patients with proven influenza.

Results  Influenza infections were laboratory confirmed in 2499 (66%) of 3815 patients (influenza A in 88% and B in 12%). Placebo recipients developed a respiratory event leading to antibiotic use in 17% of cases, mainly for acute bronchitis or acute sinusitis. Among zanamivir-treated patients (n = 1494%) the incidence of respiratory events leading to the use of antimicrobials was 11% (relative risk [RR] compared with placebo, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.84). Intranasal and inhaled zanamivir seemed to reduce the number of upper (RR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36-0.97) and lower respiratory tract events (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.38-1.08). Inhaled zanamivir reduced the number of lower respiratory tract events (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.85), but the reduction in the number of upper respiratory tract events was not statistically significant (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.27).

Conclusions  Respiratory complications or worsening of symptoms leading to antibiotic use occurred in about 17% of adolescents or adults with influenza infection. Early treatment of influenza illness with zanamivir reduced the number of these antibiotic prescriptions.

Figures in this Article

UPPER AND lower respiratory tract events leading to antibiotic prescriptions are common complications of influenza virus infection.1 Influenza leads to alteration of nasal patency, eustachian tube dysfunction, middle ear pressure abnormalities, and accumulation of fluids in the middle ear and/or paranasal sinuses, events that promote secondary bacterial infections. The causal role of influenza virus infection in development of otitis media or acute sinusitis has been demonstrated in experimental infection of animals and humans.24 In addition, lower respiratory complications, particularly bronchitis and pneumonia, are well-recognized consequences of influenza illness. This association has been confirmed again in recent reports involving elderly persons57 and younger adults.8 However, the type and frequency of respiratory complications and associated antibiotic use following proven influenza illness in adults living in the community has not been prospectively assessed in large populations. Furthermore, it is unknown whether treatment of influenza A illness with the M2 inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine reduces complications.9

Zanamivir is an influenza virus–specific neuraminidase inhibitor. When delivered by inhalation with or without intranasal administration, it is effective in the treatment of influenza illness in adults.1012 In some of these trials, a lower rate of antibiotic prescriptions occurred among zanamivir recipients than among placebo recipients.10 To determine whether early treatment of influenza illness with zanamivir could prevent respiratory tract complications or worsening of symptoms leading to antibiotic prescriptions, we analyzed the incidence of such events in available clinical trials that tested the efficacy of zanamivir in the treatment of influenza in mainly healthy adolescents and adults residing in the community. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between route of administration and the types of complications.

STUDY SELECTION

All phase II and phase III studies testing the efficacy of combined inhaled and intranasal zanamivir or inhaled zanamivir alone in the treatment of community-acquired influenza illness were considered. Our analysis included only double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies performed before or during the 1997-1998 winter season and in which incidence of antibiotic prescriptions was monitored. A total of 11 phase II and/or III studies for treatment of influenza were performed; 2 pilot studies using nebulized zanamivir and 2 studies performed exclusively in Japan with different designs and databases were excluded from our analysis. Thus, 4 phase II studies1113 and 3 phase III studies10,14,15 representing 93% of patients included in all phase II and III studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in this analysis.

PATIENTS

Patients enrolled in these studies were at least 12 years old and had an influenzalike illness with symptom duration shorter than 2 calendar days during periods of influenza virus circulation in the community. Subjects enrolled were mainly healthy adolescents and adults; only 12% were considered high-risk subjects (defined as subjects 65 years or older or those with a chronic illness, including cardiopulmonary conditions and diabetes). An influenzalike illness was defined by the presence of fever or feverishness with at least 2 additional symptoms (cough, sore throat, headache, or myalgia). Three studies required that patients have a temperature of 37.8°C or higher (≥37.2°C for patients 65 years or older). For other studies, the subjective experience of feverishness was sufficient. At entry, a medical history was obtained, a physical examination was performed, and patients recorded their symptoms on a diary card. Influenza infection was documented by viral culture, antigen detection, and/or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for viral RNA on nasopharyngeal specimens and paired acute and convalescent serum hemagglutination-inhibition antibody assays. A positive result on at least 1 test was considered a laboratory-confirmed influenza illness. Patients were required to return for a posttreatment visit 5 days after starting treatment and for an end-of-study visit after 21 or 28 days. In all studies, investigators collected data prospectively on antibiotic use. No specific instructions were given for antibiotic indications or type, and antibiotics were prescribed when deemed necessary by investigators. For the 3 phase III trials and 2 of the phase II trials, antibiotic use for complications of influenza was prospectively defined as a secondary end point. For 1 trial, the investigators specifically recorded whether the patient was prescribed an antibiotic for an influenza complication. For the remaining trial, the indications for use of all antibiotics were reviewed and classified as influenza complications or other illness by a physician unaware of treatment assignments.

Treatment in phase II trials consisted of combined intranasal (6.4 mg, 2 or 4 times daily) and inhaled zanamivir (10 mg, 2 or 4 times daily) or inhaled zanamivir alone for 5 days. To maintain the blinding in these trials, placebo and zanamivir recipients had both intranasal sprays and drug powder in inhalation. Patients enrolled in the treatment groups in phase III trials received 10 mg of inhaled zanamivir twice daily for 5 days or corresponding placebo. The respective numbers of placebo recipients and zanamivir-treated patients enrolled in each study (as well as the route of administration) are given in Table 1.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Main Characteristics of 7 Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Studies Testing the Effect of Zanamivir in Treatment of Patients With Influenzalike Illness During Influenza Season
MEASUREMENTS

The primary end point for this analysis was the occurrence of at least 1 of the following events during the follow-up period in a patient with a laboratory-confirmed influenza illness: (1) any upper or lower respiratory tract event leading to an antibiotic prescription; (2) worsening of initial symptoms leading to antibiotic prescription; or (3) an antibiotic prescribed to prevent bacterial complications. For the purpose of this analysis respiratory events were categorized under blinded conditions based on the information available in the case report forms and the recorded adverse experience reports. Upper respiratory events were defined as acute sinusitis (including complications of sinusitis and purulent and persistent rhinitis), pharyngitis (including streptococcal pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and pharyngeal abscess) or ear infections (including otitis media and mastoiditis). Lower respiratory events were defined as acute bronchitis (including tracheobronchitis, productive cough with colored sputum, or persistent cough), or pneumonia (including bronchopneumonia). When patients experienced 2 or more events, the events were included in the tabulations of complication type.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

The incidence of the first respiratory event leading to antibiotic use was compared between treatments using a Mantel-Haenszel test, with the analysis stratified by study.16 For patients experiencing more than 1 event, only the first event was considered in this analysis. Statistical tests were performed at the 2-sided 5% level of significance, and corresponding estimates of relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were also calculated. Time to first complication was also compared using a log-rank test.

The effect of inhaled and intranasal zanamivir treatment was compared with placebo across trials that included a treatment arm of combined inhaled and intranasal drug. Similarly, inhaled zanamivir alone was compared with placebo in trials that included a treatment arm of inhaled zanamivir alone.

Interaction tests were performed to assess whether the efficacy of zanamivir varied across subgroups. These tests compared all placebo patients with all zanamivir patients using an exact test for homogeneity of odds ratios (ORs%) across strata.17

PATIENTS

Seven clinical trials enrolling 3815 patients met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed. These studies were performed during the fall and winter seasons between 1994 and 1998 in North America, Europe, or in the Southern Hemisphere. Six of the 7 trials included a treatment arm of inhaled zanamivir, while 4 trials included a treatment arm of combined inhaled and intranasal drug. Three of the 7 trials included both of these treatment arms (Table 1). Among the 3815 patients enrolled, 2499 (66%) had a laboratory-confirmed influenza infection; 687 (27%) were randomized to receive inhaled and intranasal zanamivir; 807 (32%), inhaled zanamivir; and 1005 (40%), placebo. The mean age of patients was 34 years; 50% were male, and 12% were considered high-risk patients (suffering from a chronic illness or older than 65 years). The mean duration of influenza illness from the onset of symptoms to enrollment was 29 hours.

OUTCOMES AND EFFECT OF TREATMENT

Among the 2499 patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza illness, respiratory events leading to antibiotic use occurred in 172 (17%) of 1005 placebo recipients. Twenty-five percent of these patients experienced their first events within 3 days, 50% within 5 days, and 75% within 10 days. Of the placebo recipients who presented a respiratory event leading to antibiotic precriptions, 43% had acute bronchitis, 25% acute sinusitis, 10% pharyngitis, 9% ear infections, and 8% pneumonia. An additional 10% of patients received antibiotics for worsening of initial symptoms (without a specific diagnosis%) or ostensibly to prevent bacterial complications.

Respiratory events leading to antibiotic use occurred in 167 (11%) of 1494 zanamivir recipients with confirmed influenza illness (RR compared with 17% placebo (0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.84; P<.001). This difference corresponds to a 31% reduction of antibiotic prescriptions in zanamivir recipients. Among the 1316 patients with influenzalike illness, but without confirmed influenza infection, the incidence of respiratory events leading to antibiotic prescriptions was 15% in both placebo (80/519) and zanamivir (120/797) recipients (RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.77-1.30; P>.9). The effect in zanamivir recipients was significantly associated with the presence of a laboratory-confirmed influenza infection (test of interaction between the influenza-positive and influenza-negative population, P = .02).

Among 339 patients with confirmed influenza and respiratory events leading to antibiotic prescriptions, 8 (2.4%) were hospitalized after initiation of study drug treatment. Five of these 8 hospitalizations were related to a respiratory event: pneumonia in 4 cases, and an acute sinusitis with pleuritis in 1. Four of these 5 patients were placebo recipients and 1 received inhaled zanamivir. The other 3 hospitalizations were for non–influenza-related events (appendicitis in 2 cases, postantibiotic colitis in 1).

EFFECT OF ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION

In the 4 trials that included combined inhaled and intranasal drug therapy, the incidence of respiratory events leading to antibiotic prescription was 15% in placebo recipients compared with 9% in zanamivir recipients (P = .003) (Figure 1A). In the 6 trials that included a treatment arm of inhaled zanamivir alone, this incidence of complications was 18% in placebo recipients and 13% in zanamivir recipients (P = .006). Corresponding reductions were seen in time to first complication (Figure 1, P = .001 for combined inhaled and intranasal compared with placebo; P = .005 for inhaled alone compared with placebo). Of note, the rise in events around day 6 coincided with the patients' posttreatment visits.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption

A, Time from treatment start (combined intranasal and inhaled zanamivir vs placebo) to antibiotic prescription for a respiratory tract complication in 1134 patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza illness. Placebo recipients, n = 447; zanamivir recipients, n = 687. B, Time from treatment start (inhaled zanamivir vs placebo) to antibiotic prescription for a respiratory tract complication in 1572 patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza illness. Placebo recipients, n = 765; zanamivir recipients, n = 807.

Graphic Jump Location

Combined intranasal and inhaled zanamivir seemed to reduce both upper (RR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36-0.97) and lower respiratory tract events (RR, 0.64; 95%CI, 0.38-1.08) (Table 2). Inhaled zanamivir treatment reduced lower respiratory tract illness (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.85), but the reduction in upper respiratory tract events was smaller and not statistically significant (RR 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.27) (Table 3).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Incidence of Respiratory Complications Leading to Antibiotic Prescriptions in 1134 Patients With Proven Influenza Illness Receiving Placebo or Intranasal and Inhaled Zanamivir*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Incidence of Respiratory Complications Leading to Antibiotic Prescriptions in 1572 Patients With Proven Influenza Illness Receiving a Placebo or Inhaled Zanamivir*
SUBGROUP ANALYSIS

We assessed whether the size of the effect was consistent across subgroups (Table 4 and Table 5). The largest differences in efficacy were for influenza subtype and patient sex. However, the P values for interaction tests comparing all zanamivir recipients with corresponding placebo recipients were P = .41 for female vs male patients and P = .72 for influenza A infection vs influenza B. Neither of these values was significant, indicating that in the studied population zanamivir effect was not limited to a subgroup of patients.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Patients With Proven Influenza Illness and Treated With Combined Inhaled and Intranasal Drug: Incidence of Respiratory Complications Leading to Antibiotic Prescriptions According to Risk Groups*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 5. Patients With Proven Influenza Illness and Treated With Inhaled Drug: Incidence of Respiratory Complications Leading to Antibiotic Prescriptions According to Risk Groups
ANTIBIOTICS

Antibiotics prescribed were penicillins in 41% of cases, macrolides in 25%, cephalosporins in 21%, tetracyclines in 9%, sulfonamides in 4%, and other (including quinolones) in 6%. There were no differences in the pattern of specific antibiotic use between zanamivir and placebo recipients.

Our results showed that in a largely healthy population of ambulatory adolescents and adults developing acute influenza, the rate of physician-diagnosed respiratory events leading to antibiotic prescriptions was about 17%. Approximately half of these events occurred within the 6 days after the onset of influenza symptoms and were most commonly acute bronchitis and acute sinusitis. Our results also indicate that in mainly healthy adolescent and adult patients, treatment of laboratory-confirmed influenza illness with either combined intranasal and inhaled or inhaled zanamivir alone reduces respiratory events leading to antibiotic use; antibiotic prescriptions were 28% lower in inhaled zanamivir recipients compared with placebo recipients.

This study represents the first demonstration in a large population of patients with influenza that early antiviral therapy can reduce physician-diagnosed complications and associated antibiotic use. Of note, in our population the mean duration after the onset of symptoms was approximately 29 hours, and all patients were included within 2 days. Therefore, efficacy has only been established when zanamivir is administered early in the course of the disease. Also of note, only a minority (12%) of our subjects had comorbidities or were older than 65 years; further studies are necessary in such high-risk populations.

The beneficial effect of inhaled zanamivir was observed mainly in patients presenting with symptoms consistent with lower respiratory tract events. This suggests that zanamivir effect was mainly directed to the lower respiratory tract. The addition of intranasal zanamivir treatment to inhaled zanamivir therapy was not associated with additional overall clinical benefit. However, intranasal zanamivir treatment reduces viral replication in the nasopharynx, whereas inhaled zanamivir does not12; and we observed a lower incidence of upper respiratory tract events in subjects receiving intranasal zanamivir.

In previous studies exploring the role of zanamivir given intranasally in experimental human influenza, the incidence of middle ear abnormalities was decreased in zanamivir recipients.18 The rate of otitis media was low in our adult population, and no specific effect on this complication occurred. However, otitis media is a frequent event and the leading cause of antibiotic prescriptions in young children.19 Whether the addition of intranasal zanamivir could be associated with additional benefit should be investigated in appropriate studies comparing intranasal plus inhaled zanamivir to inhaled zanamivir treatment alone in young children.

Our conclusions have some limitations. The diagnosis of respiratory complications was based mainly on clinical examinations, and we did not provide additional bacteriological or radiological data. It is possible that in some cases, symptoms leading to antibiotic prescriptions were attributable to persisting influenza rather than bacterial complications. We cannot precisely state the proportion of respiratory complications of viral origin alone or of bacterial origin alone or in combination with viral. In addition, the conclusions on the effect of route of administration on the different types of respiratory complications (ie, upper or lower respiratory tract events) are limited by the lack of accuracy of the clinical diagnosis. However, these limitations are a common dilemma in daily practice, where additional investigations in patients with respiratory diseases are limited and antibiotics are generally prescribed on the basis of clinical findings only. Of note, our results are also supported by recent trials performed with another neuraminidase inhibitor, oral oseltamivir (or GS4104), in patients with community-acquired influenza.20,21 In these studies, a significant reduction of respiratory complications leading to antibiotic prescriptions also occurred. Another limitation of our study is that we enrolled a limited number of high-risk persons.

It has been well documented that influenza virus infections initiate production of various proinflammatory cytokines, including interferon α, interferon γ, interleukin (IL) 6, and IL-8 . These cytokines are implicated in recruitment of inflammatory cells and contribute to disease expression. Their role in the pathogenesis of secondary complications is not well understood, but in adults experimentally infected with influenza A virus, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor α peak in nasal washes on day 4 or 5 after the initial infection.22 Recent studies found that intravenous zanamivir or oral oseltamivir administration significantly reduces viral replication, proinflammatory cytokine levels in nasal lavages, and illness during experimental human influenza.23,24 Oral rimantadine therapy also decreased virus titers, levels of IL-8, and severity of symptoms.25 These results suggest that early antiviral treatment of influenza infection decreases levels of inflammatory mediators and thus could decrease complications promoted by these mediators. However, no direct studies characterizing the effect of antiviral therapy on such mediators in natural influenza have been reported.

Findings of subgroup analyses do not suggest that the beneficial effect of zanamivir on respiratory events leading to antibiotic use was limited to a subgroup of patients. A trend toward a greater effect was observed in patients with influenza A infection compared with those with influenza B, but the number of patients with influenza B was smaller, which limits our conclusions. The higher incidence of antibiotic prescriptions initially observed in female patients compared with males was not confirmed by further analysis. In trials performed with zanamivir, no sex differences occurred in other measures of clinical efficacy. This finding is likely attributable to chance, although differences in utilization of health care resources, physician diagnosis, or actual risk of complication could account for the difference.

Our study is the first comprehensive survey of influenza complications in previously healthy adolescent and adult patients with laboratory-documented influenza illness. We determined that approximately 1 of 6 of the placebo recipients eventually received an antibiotic prescription, mainly for secondary events such as acute bronchitis or acute sinusitis, and less often for worsening of initial symptoms. Half of these apparent complications occurred within approximately 6 days after the onset of symptoms. Our results showed that early therapy with neuraminidase inhibitors reduces clinical events leading to antibiotic prescriptions following this viral respiratory infection.

Accepted for publication June 6, 2000.

Dr Kaiser is recipient of a grant from the Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland. Dr Kaiser's current address is Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Geneva, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland (e-mail: laurent.kaiser@hcuge.ch).

Presented in part at the 39th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Francisco, Calif, September 28, 1999.

Reprints: Frederick G. Hayden, MD, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Epidemiology and Virology, Box 800473, Charlottesville, VA 22908.

Henderson  FWCollier  AMSanyal  MAWatkins  JMFairclough  DLClyde  WA A longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion. N Engl J Med. 1982;3061377- 1383
Link to Article
Buchman  CADoyle  WJSkoner  DP  et al.  Influenza A virus–induced acute otitis media. J Infect Dis. 1995;1721348- 1351
Link to Article
Doyle  WJSkoner  DAlper  CM  et al.  Effect of rimantadine treatment on clinical manifestations and otologic complications in adults experimentally infected with influenza A (H1N1) virus. J Infect Dis. 1998;1771260- 1265
Link to Article
Doyle  WJSkoner  DPHayden  FBuchman  CASeroky  JTFireman  P Nasal and otologic effects of experimental influenza A virus infection. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1994;10359- 69
Nichol  KLBaken  LNelson  A Relation between influenza vaccination and outpatient visits, hospitalization, and mortality in elderly persons with chronic lung disease. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130397- 403
Link to Article
Upshur  REKnight  KGoel  V Time-series analysis of the relation between influenza virus and hospital admissions of the elderly in Ontario, Canada, for pneumonia, chronic lung disease, and congestive heart failure. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;14985- 92
Link to Article
Muder  RR Pneumonia in residents of long-term care facilities: epidemiology, etiology, management, and prevention. Am J Med. 1998;105319- 330
Link to Article
Neuzil  KMReed  GWMitchel  EFJGriffin  MR Influenza-associated morbidity and mortality in young and middle-aged women. JAMA. 1999;281901- 907
Link to Article
Hayden  FGAoki  FY Amantadine, rimantadine, and related agents. Yu  VLMerigan  TCWhite  NJBarriere  SAntimicrobial Chemotherapy. Baltimore, Md Lippincott–Williams & Wilkins1999;1344- 1365
The MIST (Management of Influenza in the Southern Hemisphere Trialists%) Study Group, Randomised trial of efficacy and safety of inhaled zanamivir in treatment of influenza A and B infections. Lancet. 1998;3521877- 1881
Link to Article
Monto  ASFleming  DMHenry  D  et al.  Efficacy and safety of neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infection. J Infect Dis. 1999;180254- 261
Link to Article
Hayden  FGOsterhaus  ADMETreanor  JJ  et al.  Efficacy and safety of the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir in the treatment of influenza virus infections. N Engl J Med. 1997;337874- 879
Link to Article
Glaxo Wellcome Research and Development, A Double-blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Multicentre Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Inhaled Plus Intranasal Zanamivir in the Treatment of Influenza A and B Viral Infections.  Greenford, England Glaxo Wellcome1998;Study NAIB2007.
Lalezari  JKlein  TStapleton  JElliott  MFlack  NKeene  O The efficacy and safety of inhaled zanamivir in the treatment of influenza in otherwise healthy and "high risk" individuals in North America [abstract]. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1999;4444
Makela  MJPauksens  KRostila  T  et al.  Clinical efficacy and safety of the orally inhaled neuraminidase inhibitor, zanamivir, in the treatment of influenza: European study. J Infect. 2000;4042- 48
Link to Article
Mantel  NHaenszel  W Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1969;42719- 748
Zelen  M The analysis of several 2 × 2 contigency tables. Biometrika. 1991;58129- 137
Walker  JBHussey  EKTreanor  JJMontalvo  AHayden  FG Effects of the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir on otologic manifestations of experimental human influenza. J Infect Dis. 1997;1761417- 1422
Link to Article
Nyquist  ACGonzales  RSteiner  JFSande  MA Antibiotic prescribing for children with colds, upper respiratory tract infections, and bronchitis. JAMA. 1998;279875- 877
Link to Article
Treanor  JJHayden  FGVrooman  PS  et al.  Efficacy and safety of the oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in treating acute influenza. JAMA. 2000;2831016- 1024
Link to Article
Nicholson  KGAoki  FyOsterhaus  AD  et al.  Efficacy and safety of oseltamivir in treatment of acute influenza: a randomized control trial. Lancet. 2000;3551845- 1850
Link to Article
Hayden  FGFritz  RSLobo  MAlvord  GStrober  WStraus  SE Local and systemic cytokine responses during experimental human influenza A virus infection. J Clin Invest. 1998;101643- 649
Link to Article
Fritz  RSHayden  FGCalfee  DP  et al.  Nasal cytokine and chemokine responses in experimental influenza A virus infection: results of a placebo-controlled trial of intravenous zanamivir treatment. J Infect Dis. 1999;180586- 593
Link to Article
Hayden  FGTreanor  JJFritz  RS  et al.  Use of oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in experimental human influenza: randomized controlled trials for prevention and treatment. JAMA. 1999;2821240- 1246
Link to Article
Skoner  DPGentile  DAPatel  ADoyle  WJ Evidence of cytokine mediation of disease expression in adults experimentally infected with influenza A virus. J Infect Dis. 1999;18010- 14
Link to Article

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption

A, Time from treatment start (combined intranasal and inhaled zanamivir vs placebo) to antibiotic prescription for a respiratory tract complication in 1134 patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza illness. Placebo recipients, n = 447; zanamivir recipients, n = 687. B, Time from treatment start (inhaled zanamivir vs placebo) to antibiotic prescription for a respiratory tract complication in 1572 patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza illness. Placebo recipients, n = 765; zanamivir recipients, n = 807.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Main Characteristics of 7 Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Studies Testing the Effect of Zanamivir in Treatment of Patients With Influenzalike Illness During Influenza Season
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Incidence of Respiratory Complications Leading to Antibiotic Prescriptions in 1134 Patients With Proven Influenza Illness Receiving Placebo or Intranasal and Inhaled Zanamivir*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 5. Patients With Proven Influenza Illness and Treated With Inhaled Drug: Incidence of Respiratory Complications Leading to Antibiotic Prescriptions According to Risk Groups
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Patients With Proven Influenza Illness and Treated With Combined Inhaled and Intranasal Drug: Incidence of Respiratory Complications Leading to Antibiotic Prescriptions According to Risk Groups*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Incidence of Respiratory Complications Leading to Antibiotic Prescriptions in 1572 Patients With Proven Influenza Illness Receiving a Placebo or Inhaled Zanamivir*

References

Henderson  FWCollier  AMSanyal  MAWatkins  JMFairclough  DLClyde  WA A longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion. N Engl J Med. 1982;3061377- 1383
Link to Article
Buchman  CADoyle  WJSkoner  DP  et al.  Influenza A virus–induced acute otitis media. J Infect Dis. 1995;1721348- 1351
Link to Article
Doyle  WJSkoner  DAlper  CM  et al.  Effect of rimantadine treatment on clinical manifestations and otologic complications in adults experimentally infected with influenza A (H1N1) virus. J Infect Dis. 1998;1771260- 1265
Link to Article
Doyle  WJSkoner  DPHayden  FBuchman  CASeroky  JTFireman  P Nasal and otologic effects of experimental influenza A virus infection. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1994;10359- 69
Nichol  KLBaken  LNelson  A Relation between influenza vaccination and outpatient visits, hospitalization, and mortality in elderly persons with chronic lung disease. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130397- 403
Link to Article
Upshur  REKnight  KGoel  V Time-series analysis of the relation between influenza virus and hospital admissions of the elderly in Ontario, Canada, for pneumonia, chronic lung disease, and congestive heart failure. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;14985- 92
Link to Article
Muder  RR Pneumonia in residents of long-term care facilities: epidemiology, etiology, management, and prevention. Am J Med. 1998;105319- 330
Link to Article
Neuzil  KMReed  GWMitchel  EFJGriffin  MR Influenza-associated morbidity and mortality in young and middle-aged women. JAMA. 1999;281901- 907
Link to Article
Hayden  FGAoki  FY Amantadine, rimantadine, and related agents. Yu  VLMerigan  TCWhite  NJBarriere  SAntimicrobial Chemotherapy. Baltimore, Md Lippincott–Williams & Wilkins1999;1344- 1365
The MIST (Management of Influenza in the Southern Hemisphere Trialists%) Study Group, Randomised trial of efficacy and safety of inhaled zanamivir in treatment of influenza A and B infections. Lancet. 1998;3521877- 1881
Link to Article
Monto  ASFleming  DMHenry  D  et al.  Efficacy and safety of neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infection. J Infect Dis. 1999;180254- 261
Link to Article
Hayden  FGOsterhaus  ADMETreanor  JJ  et al.  Efficacy and safety of the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir in the treatment of influenza virus infections. N Engl J Med. 1997;337874- 879
Link to Article
Glaxo Wellcome Research and Development, A Double-blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Multicentre Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Inhaled Plus Intranasal Zanamivir in the Treatment of Influenza A and B Viral Infections.  Greenford, England Glaxo Wellcome1998;Study NAIB2007.
Lalezari  JKlein  TStapleton  JElliott  MFlack  NKeene  O The efficacy and safety of inhaled zanamivir in the treatment of influenza in otherwise healthy and "high risk" individuals in North America [abstract]. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1999;4444
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