This study has several limitations. First, the study was conducted for a different initial purpose; however, the initial proposal specified that the baseline database would be used for cross-sectional analyses relating predictors to outcomes such as mood and behavior. Moreover, the present analysis was performed in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the determination to examine the chocolate-mood association was made prior to examination of the chocolate data, the mood data, or evaluation of any association between nutrients and mood. In addition, the findings buttress and substantially extend previous findings examining chocolate and mood, and several factors improve the authority of the findings, including consistency of findings for men and women and with several measures of chocolate consumption, use of a widely recognized depression rating, and demonstration of relative specificity of the finding. Second, these data are based on self-report of diet, and chocolate and other nutrient consumption could have error or bias. However, self-reported diet data are widely used, and the inherent limitations of self-report are similar to those of any nutritional epidemiologic study based on recall. Third, although the reliability and validity of the CES-D have been confirmed,10 and it was designed for use in broadly sampled groups such as those herein9 (and has subsequently been demonstrated to be valid in an extensive range of settings), it is still a screening test and does not indicate any Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnosis of a mood disorder. Fourth, although the present study assessed and presumptively excluded a confounding contribution by key macronutrient elements such as fats, energy intake, and carbohydrates, it did not assess some potential mediating factors such as phenylethylamine, anandamine, or theobromine levels, which will be left for future studies. Moreover, different chocolate products that may differ in characteristics are not distinguished.