Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a validated 22-item questionnaire that is considered a standard tool for measuring burnout.20- 23 The Maslach Burnout Inventory has 3 subscales that are used to evaluate the 3 domains of burnout: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and low personal accomplishment (PA). We considered physicians with a high score for medical professionals on the DP (score ≥10) and/or EE (score ≥27) subscale as having at least 1 manifestation of professional burnout.20,24,25 Additional questions were used to evaluate practice characteristics (hours worked per week, the percentage of professional effort spent in various activities [eg, research, education, patient care, or administration]), which work activity was most personally meaningful (research, education, patient care, administration, and nonvisit patient care activities [eg, returning patient phone calls, writing letters to patients, and checking laboratory results]), and personal strategies used to deal with stress. The percentage of effort spent in the activity rated as most personally meaningful was used as a metric of career fit. As a measure of career satisfaction, responders were also asked about the likelihood that they would leave academic medicine, leave their current position, or reduce their effort to part time in the next 24 to 36 months. For these items, responders were grouped into categories (≤40% likelihood vs >40% likelihood) based on previously published use of this threshold.12 With respect to hours worked per week, physicians were asked, on average, how many hours per week they spent (1) working on site (eg, physically at work seeing patients, doing research, teaching, or performing administrative tasks), (2) performing work-related tasks at home (eg, preparing talks, writing articles, or working on grants), and (3) keeping abreast of developments in their field (eg, reading journals) or performing tasks to maintain certification (eg, completing American Board of Internal Medicine modules). These 3 values were summed to calculate total hours worked per week. After development, the survey was reviewed by the department chair, the research chair, a senior department administrator, and the director of staff development and was modified on the basis of their feedback before use.