We performed analyses by modeling the risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis combined (total pancreatitis) according to categories of smoking status (Table 2). Similar risk estimates were observed in women and men: for example, the hazard ratio of developing pancreatitis was 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-4.7) among women and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1-6.2) among men who smoked 15 to 24 grams per day of tobacco. Combining women and men (P value for interaction between sex and smoking status in nested log likelihood test was .70) in an analysis adjusted for age and sex and in an analysis further adjusted for alcohol, education level, and BMI, current smokers had a higher risk of both acute and chronic pancreatitis compared with never-smokers, and risk estimates were similar for the 2 outcomes (Table 3). For ex-smokers, however, the hazard ratio for acute pancreatitis was 2.3 (95% CI, 1.3-4.1), whereas the hazard ratio for chronic pancreatitis was 0.9 (95% CI, 0.4-2.0). For total pancreatitis, adjusted hazard ratios were 1.7 (95% CI, 1.0-2.7), 1.5 (95% CI, 0.9-2.5), 2.5 (95% CI, 1.5-3.9), and 3.3 (95% CI, 1.9-5.8) among ex-smokers and current smokers of 1 to 14, 15 to 24, and 25 g/d or more of tobacco, respectively. In the multivariable-adjusted models, alcohol was responsible for most of the effect of adjustment. The adjusted hazard ratio for amount of alcohol intake was 1.09 (96% CI, 1.04-1.14) for each additional drink per day. The inclusion of variables for personal income and physical activity to the fully adjusted model had negligible effect on the size and precision of the risk estimates. The fully adjusted risk of pancreatitis in women compared with men was 0.9 (95% CI, 0.6-1.1). Repeating the analyses without updating information on smoking and other variables did not change our results (data not shown).