Covariates included in the analyses were age, sex, race/ethnicity (white, African American, Mexican American, and other), education (<high school, high school diploma or general equivalency diploma, and >high school), insurance status, smoking status (current, former, and never), body mass index, physical activity, alcohol use, intake of carbohydrates (≤60% of total energy intake and >60% of total energy intake), diagnosed diabetes (yes and no), and use of cholesterol concentration–lowering medications. Health insurance status was determined from the following question: “Are you covered by health insurance or some other kind of health care plan? [Include health insurance obtained through employment or purchased directly as well as government programs like Medicare and Medicaid that provide medical care or help pay medical bills.]” Participants answering yes were considered to have health insurance. Participants who had smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and were currently smoking were designated as current smokers. Those who had smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and were not currently smoking were designated as former smokers. Those who had not smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime were designated as never having smoked. Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared and categorized as lower than 18.5, 18.5 to lower than 25, 25 to lower than 30, and 30 or higher. Alcohol use was derived from a series of questions about the use of alcoholic beverages during the past 12 months. Weekly times spent in transportation-related physical activities (in response to the question “Over the past 30 days, have you walked or bicycled as part of getting to and from work or school or to do errands?”), house- or yard-related activities, or exercise, sports, and physically active hobbies were summed and dichotomized into categories of 150 minutes per week or more and less than 150 minutes per week.8 Carbohydrate intake was determined from a single 24-hour dietary recall for 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 and from two 24-hour recalls for 2003-2004. Participants who responded affirmatively to the question “Have you ever been told by a doctor or health professional you have diabetes or sugar diabetes?” were considered to have diagnosed diabetes. Those who answered that they had not been so told or that they had borderline diabetes were not considered to have diagnosed diabetes. Participants who reported using a statin (atorvastatin, cerivastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, or simvastatin) or ezetimibe were considered to be receiving medications to lower cholesterol concentration.