Face-to-face interviews conducted by recruiters in English or Spanish were used to administer a 27-item risk factor assessment questionnaire.10,13- 15 The screening questionnaire, which was previously developed at Jefferson Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was based on our clinical experience and on the literature. It has been widely used in clinical settings, including our own, but has never previously been validated or published. Each item in the instrument could be answered yes or no. The questionnaire grouped risk factors into 5 domains: work history, exposure history, personal care history, social history, and medical history. The work history domain questions asked whether subjects had ever had jobs identified in the literature as having a potentially higher risk of HCV exposure: physicians, nurses, medical assistants, home attendants, and laboratory personnel as well as tattoo artists and corrections officers. The exposure history domain questions were about past contact with another persons' blood, eg, during an accident or injury. The personal care history domain items were sharing toothbrushes, receiving tattoos or piercings, and acupuncture. The social history domain questions were about illicit drug use, incarceration, and past and current sexual activity. Medical history domain questions were iatrogenic risks for transmission, including blood transfusions, dialysis, and other medical procedures as well as elevated liver function test results. Collected data included the following subject demographic information: age, sex, race and ethnicity, insurance coverage, and education level.