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Special Article |

The Quality of Dying and Death

Sarah Hales, MD; Camilla Zimmermann, MD, MSc; Gary Rodin, MD
Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(9):912-918. doi:10.1001/archinte.168.9.912.
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During the past decade, research has examined definitions and conceptualizations of quality of dying and death in different populations. At the same time, there has been a call to clarify the distinctions between quality of dying and death and other end-of-life constructs. The purposes of this article are to (1) review research that examined definitions and conceptualizations of the quality of dying and death, (2) clarify the quality of dying and death construct and its distinction from quality of life and quality of care at the end of life, and (3) outline challenges that remain for health care professionals, researchers, and policy makers. Review of the literature revealed that the quality of dying and death construct is multidimensional, with 7 broad domains: physical experience, psychological experience, social experience, spiritual or existential experience, the nature of health care, life closure and death preparation, and the circumstances of death. The quality of dying and death is subjectively determined with numerous factors that influence its judgment, including culture, type and stage of disease, and social and professional role in the dying experience. Quality of dying and death is broader in scope than either quality of life at the end of life or quality of care at the end of life, although there is overlap among these constructs.

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