A total of 126 patients died before reaching the need for dialysis (mortality rate, 116 per 1000 patient-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97-138) and in 131 patients was dialysis initiated (dialysis initiation rate, 121 per 1000 patient-years; 95% CI, 102-143) during a median follow-up of 2.1 years. Characteristics of the 5 patients lost to follow-up were not significantly different (data not shown). Figure 2 shows the Kaplan-Meier survival curves for all-cause mortality in calcitriol-treated and nontreated patients, with patients who received calcitriol treatment displaying a significantly lower mortality rate (P < .001, log-rank test). The incidence rate ratios (calcitriol-treated vs nontreated patients) for predialysis mortality, the composite of predialysis mortality and ESRD, and ESRD alone in the unadjusted models, case mix–adjusted models (ie, for age, race, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking status, comorbidity index, presence of diabetes mellitus, and use of calcium-containing and non–calcium-containing phosphate binders), and case mix–adjusted plus laboratory variable–adjusted models (ie, for all the case mix variables plus levels of PTH, eGFR, calcium, phosphorus, albumin, cholesterol, hemoglobin, and 24-hour urine protein, white blood cell count, and percentage of lymphocytes in white blood cell count) are shown in Table 2. The incidence rate ratio for all cause-mortality indicated significantly favorable outcomes in the calcitriol-treated group in the unadjusted model, with magnification of the benefit after adjustments. The incidence rate ratio of mortality in treated vs untreated patients was 0.35 (95% CI, 0.23-0.54; P < .001) and for combined death and dialysis initiation was 0.46 (95% CI, 0.35-0.61) in the fully adjusted models. There was a nonsignificant trend between calcitriol treatment and the incidence of ESRD alone (without mortality) in unadjusted and fully adjusted models, whereas this association was statistically significant in the case mix–adjusted model, that is, an ESRD incidence rate ratio of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.46-0.97; P = .03). Figure 3 shows the multivariable-adjusted incidence rate ratios of all-cause mortality from the fully adjusted model in various patient subgroups, indicating significantly lower all-cause mortality for patients treated with calcitriol in all of the examined subgroups. The results were not different when we restricted the analyses to the 472 patients enrolled after January 1, 2001 (data not shown).