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Review Article |

Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Complications:  A Systematic Review FREE

Jeanette M. Tetrault, MD; Kristina Crothers, MD; Brent A. Moore, PhD; Reena Mehra, MD, MS; John Concato, MD, MS, MPH; David A. Fiellin, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Clinical Epidemiology Research Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven Veterans Affairs Medical Center, West Haven, Conn (Drs Tetrault and Concato); Departments of Medicine (Drs Tetrault, Crothers, Concato, and Fiellin) and Psychiatry (Dr Moore), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn; and Department of Medicine, Case Western University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (Dr Mehra).


Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(3):221-228. doi:10.1001/archinte.167.3.221.
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Published online

Background  The relationship between marijuana smoking and pulmonary function or respiratory complications is poorly understood; therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of marijuana smoking on pulmonary function and respiratory complications.

Methods  Studies that evaluated the effect of marijuana smoking on pulmonary function and respiratory complications were selected from the MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and EMBASE databases according to predefined criteria from January 1, 1966, to October 28, 2005. Two independent reviewers extracted data and evaluated study quality based on established criteria. Study results were critically appraised for clinical applicability and research methods.

Results  Thirty-four publications met selection criteria. Reports were classified as challenge studies if they examined the association between short-term marijuana use and airway response; other reports were classified as studies of long-term marijuana smoking and pulmonary function or respiratory complications. Eleven of 12 challenge studies found an association between short-term marijuana administration and bronchodilation (eg, increases of 0.15-0.25 L in forced expiratory volume in 1 second). No consistent association was found between long-term marijuana smoking and airflow obstruction measures. All 14 studies that assessed long-term marijuana smoking and respiratory complications noted an association with increased respiratory symptoms, including cough, phlegm, and wheeze (eg, odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.01, for the association between marijuana smoking and cough). Studies were variable in their overall quality (eg, controlling for confounders, including tobacco smoking).

Conclusions  Short-term exposure to marijuana is associated with bronchodilation. Physiologic data were inconclusive regarding an association between long-term marijuana smoking and airflow obstruction measures. Long-term marijuana smoking is associated with increased respiratory symptoms suggestive of obstructive lung disease.

Figures in this Article

Marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, with 14.6 million people 12 years and older reporting current use.1 The prevalence of marijuana abuse and dependence continues to increase and occurs in 18% of past-year marijuana users.2 Given the persistently high prevalence of marijuana use, abuse, and dependence in the community, it is important to understand the potential adverse health outcomes that result from both short-term and long-term marijuana smoking.

Marijuana and tobacco smoke share many of the same compounds. Tobacco smoking is associated with numerous adverse pulmonary clinical outcomes, affecting both pulmonary function and respiratory complications. Some of the known tobacco smoking–related adverse effects include cough, chronic bronchitis, impairment of gas exchange, and airway obstruction that leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.3,4 The adverse impact of marijuana smoking on pulmonary function and respiratory complications has not been systematically assessed. The purpose of the current review is to determine the association between short-term marijuana smoking and airway response and the association between long-term marijuana smoking and pulmonary function or respiratory complications.

SEARCH STRATEGIES

English-language studies in persons 18 years or older were identified from the MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and EMBASE databases from January 1, 1966, to October 28, 2005, using medical subject headings and text words (see Appendix at http://www.tresearch.org/add_health/lit_reviews.htm). Only studies that involved marijuana smoking were considered for review.

SELECTION

Retrieval of studies was performed by 2 reviewers (B.A.M. and R.M.), who evaluated titles and abstracts from the initial electronic search of potentially relevant articles. Studies were excluded if they did not report primary data, did not include human subjects, did not report results of respiratory complications or pulmonary function tests, or reported on a case series with fewer than 10 subjects. For studies that presented data on similar or duplicate cohorts, we used data that represented the last follow-up for the cohort or findings from investigations that represented assessments of unique domains or variables. Articles that could not be categorized based on review of the abstract were evaluated in manuscript form. Studies with discordant categorizations by the 2 reviewers were resolved in collaboration with a third reviewer (D.A.F., K.C., or J.M.T.) to reach consensus.

VALIDITY ASSESSMENT

Study quality was evaluated by 2 reviewers (J.M.T. and K.C.) using an established generic instrument5 that assessed reporting, bias or confounding, and power; a score of 12 or higher was considered good study quality.5 We also applied exposure and disease-specific criteria to augment quality assessment using the generic instrument. For cross-sectional studies, these criteria were whether data were included on prior tobacco exposure and on dose and duration of marijuana exposure and whether a standardized method to assess the pulmonary outcome of interest was used. For observational cohort studies, an additional criterion was to screen patients at baseline and exclude those with the outcome of interest. Challenge studies needed to meet the criteria listed herein and also mask patients and study personnel to marijuana use. Differences between reviewers were resolved by consensus with input from a third reviewer (J.C. or D.A.F.). Interrater reliability was high (r = 0.79 for the generic evaluation criteria; r = 0.89, Kendall τ b = 0.85; P<.001 for the exposure and disease-specific criteria).

DATA SYNTHESIS

The heterogeneous nature of the studies and their outcomes precluded quantitative synthesis (ie, meta-analysis). Therefore, this review focuses on a qualitative synthesis of the data.

DATA ABSTRACTION

The initial literature search identified 965 citations. Inconsistencies regarding assessment of eligibility criteria were discussed by the whole team. Of the 965 abstracts initially reviewed, 931 were not relevant: 436 did not report primary data, 252 did not include human subjects, 173 lacked evaluation of respiratory complications or pulmonary function tests, 66 were case series of fewer than 10 patients, and 4 reported data obtained from the same patients. Ultimately, 34 unique articles were included in the review (Figure).

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure.

Literature search results.

Graphic Jump Location

The outcomes of the 34 included studies were classified into 3 non–mutually exclusive categories: airway response to experimentally administered marijuana (challenge studies),617 changes in pulmonary function secondary to long-term marijuana smoking,1831 and respiratory complications secondary to long-term marijuana smoking.18,20,22,24,28,3139 The studies reviewed had diverse study designs; 12 studies had a laboratory challenge study design,617 15 were cross-sectional,18,19,2123,25,27,28,30,31,3438 3 were observational cohort studies,24,26,29 3 were case series,20,33,39 and 1 was a case-control study.32

REVIEW OF STUDIES CATEGORIZED BY STUDY OUTCOME
Short-term Marijuana Use and Airway Response

Twelve studies (Table 1) assessed the impact of short-term marijuana use on airway response. The studies used various measures to evaluate airway response: specific airway conductance (sGaw) (a measure that is inversely related to airway resistance),6,7,9,12,1416 forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1),911,14,15 peak flow,8 airway resistance,17 and change in methacholine- and exercise-induced bronchospasm.13

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Challenge Studies That Reported Effects of Short-term Marijuana Inhalation on Airway Response

Among the 7 studies that used sGaw to assess the airway response to marijuana challenge, 6 studies6,7,9,12,15,16 showed an increase in sGaw after marijuana challenge that ranged from 8% to 48%. Two of these studies6,12 showed that the increase in sGaw lasts up to 60 minutes after marijuana administration, and 1 study12 demonstrated that peak sGaw occurred 15 minutes after smoking.

Among the 5 studies that used FEV1 to assess airway response to marijuana challenge, 3 studies9,10,15 showed an increase in FEV1 after smoking marijuana compared with baseline, ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 L. One study11 showed no difference in FEV1 after marijuana challenge compared with baseline or placebo.

One study8 used peak flow to assess marijuana effect on airway response and showed that 12 of 15 patients had an increase in peak flow immediately after marijuana inhalation, with a mean ± SD prechallenge vs postchallenge peak flow of 509.2 ± 76.1 vs 549.2 ± 66.4 L/min × 100, respectively (P<.05). Another study17 showed a mean ± SD decrease in airway resistance after marijuana smoking compared with placebo (2.08 ± 0.36 cm H2O/L per second for low-dose marijuana smoking vs 1.49 ± 0.26 cm H2O/L per second for placebo and 1.97 ± 0.35 cm H2O/L per second for high-dose marijuana smoking vs 1.18 ± 0.14 cm H2O/L per second for placebo; P<.05 for both comparisons). Finally, a third study13 showed immediate reversal of both methacholine-induced and exercise-induced bronchospasm in patients with asthma after marijuana challenge.

One study14 examined the impact of a more prolonged exposure to marijuana on airway response, in which subjects smoked marijuana ad libitum for 47 to 59 days in a sequestered environment. In contrast to the short-term exposure studies, this study demonstrated a decrease in sGaw compared with baseline (change of 16% ± 2%; P<.001) after the more prolonged exposure to marijuana, as well as a decrease in FEV1 compared with baseline. This study also demonstrated a correlation between average daily quantity of marijuana smoked and decrease in sGaw.

Long-term Marijuana Smoking and Changes in Pulmonary Function

Fourteen studies (Table 2) addressed the impact of long-term marijuana smoking (described as nontobacco cigarette smoking in 2 studies18,24) on abnormalities in pulmonary function, including 10 cross-sectional studies,18,19,2123,25,27,28,30,31 3 observational cohort studies,24,26,29 and 1 case series.20

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Studies That Reported Effects of Long-term Marijuana Inhalation on Pulmonary Function

Of these, 9 studies1820,2224,26,28,29 reported data on the effect of marijuana smoking on FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC. One observational cohort study26 reported no change in FEV1 among marijuana smokers for a mean ± SD follow-up of 4.9 ± 2.0 years. Another observational cohort study24 showed a 142-mL decrease in FEV1 among patients who had previously smoked nontobacco cigarettes (P<.01). One case series20 noted that long-term hashish smokers who presented with respiratory complaints had a 15% to 40% decreased FVC compared with controls. One large cross-sectional study18 showed that male nontobacco cigarette smokers had a decrease in FEV1/FVC ratio compared with both nonsmokers (90% predicted vs 98.4% predicted; P<.05) and tobacco smokers (90% predicted vs 95.2% predicted; P<.05). Two other cross-sectional studies22,28 reported a decrease in the FEV1/FVC ratio among marijuana smokers when compared with nonsmokers, but after adjusting for tobacco use, 1 of these studies22 demonstrated no difference between marijuana smokers and nonsmokers. One observational cohort study24 reported that FEV1/FVC was reduced 1 year or more after nontobacco cigarette smoking compared with nonsmoking (decreased 1.9% ± 0.7%; P<.01), but no dose-response relationship was noted. Another large observational cohort study,29 which followed up a birth cohort into adolescence, found that individuals using cannabis more than 900 times had mean FEV1/FVC values that were decreased 7.2% at the age of 18 years, 2.5% at the age of 21 years, and 5.0% at the age of 26 years compared with nonsmokers (P<.05 for all comparisons), but when adjusted for age, tobacco smoking, and weight, the association was no longer statistically significant. Two cross-sectional studies19,23 reported no differences with respect to FEV1/FVC ratio.

Three studies23,30,31 examined changes in the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) with long-term marijuana use. The DLCO was reduced in long-term marijuana smokers (74% ± 20% predicted) compared with nonsmoking controls (92% ± 11% predicted; P<.05) in 1 cross-sectional study,30 although 2 studies22,31 reported no difference in DLCO between long-term marijuana smokers and nonsmokers.

Four studies21,25,27,31 examined the impact of long-term marijuana smoking on airway resistance and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-term marijuana smoking was associated with a decrease in sGaw in 2 cross-sectional studies; one25 showed a decrease compared with control subjects (0.17 ± 0.00 L/s per centimeter H2O for marijuana smokers and 0.24 ± 0.01 L/s per centimeter H2O for controls; P<.001), and the other31 showed that, among men only, sGaw was decreased in marijuana smokers compared with tobacco smokers (0.19 L/s per centimeter H2O for marijuana smokers and 0.21 L/s per centimeter H2O for tobacco smokers; P<.03). Another cross-sectional study21 reported no change in airway resistance in response to inhaled histamine in marijuana users compared with nonsmoking controls. Finally, another cross-sectional study27 reported an association between long-term marijuana smoking and a decrease in FEV1 to lower doses of methacholine compared with nonsmoking controls, suggesting nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness.

Long-term Marijuana Smoking and Respiratory Complications

We reviewed 14 studies (Table 3) that assessed the impact of long-term marijuana smoking on respiratory complications; 9 were cross-sectional,18,22,28,31,3438 3 were case series,20,33,39 1 was a case-control study,32 and 1 was an observational cohort.24 All 14 studies showed an association between marijuana smoking (or nontobacco cigarette smoking) and an increased risk of various respiratory complications.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Studies That Reported Effects of Long-term Marijuana Inhalation on Respiratory Complications

Increased cough, sputum production, and wheeze were reported in 4 of these studies.18,22,24,31 One cross-sectional study31 reported increased prevalence of chronic cough (18%-24%), sputum production (20%-26%), and wheeze (25%-37%) among marijuana and/or tobacco smokers compared with nonsmokers (P<.05 for all comparisons) but not between marijuana and tobacco smokers. A large cross-sectional study18 suggested a dose response between intensity and duration of nontobacco cigarette smoking and cough. Another large cross-sectional study22 showed that after controlling for sex, age, current asthma, and number of tobacco cigarettes smoked per day, marijuana smoking was associated with increased odds of cough (odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-3.01), phlegm (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.35-2.66), and wheeze (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.05-4.34) compared with controls (P<.01 for all comparisons). A large observational cohort study24 showed an increased odds of cough (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.21-2.47), phlegm (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.08-2.18), and wheeze (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.50-2.70) in current nontobacco smokers compared with nonsmokers after adjusting for age, tobacco smoking, and occurrence of symptoms reported previously.

The remainder of the studies showed an association between marijuana smoking and various respiratory complications: bronchitis,20,22,31,35,39 dyspnea,28,33,35,36 pharyngitis,20,35,37 hoarse voice,34,35 worsening asthma symptoms,20,35 abnormal chest sounds,22 worsening cystic fibrosis symptoms,38 acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma,32 and chest tightness.28

STUDY QUALITY

On the basis of study design, the studies reported were of variable quality using the standardized scale.5 The mean quality score was 12.6 (range, 6-18) for the 12 challenge studies, 5.2 (range, 4-7) for the 3 case series, 10.5 (range, 3-19) for the 15 cross-sectional studies, 12 for the 1 case-control study, and 13 (range, 10-14) for the 3 observational cohort studies.

Study quality was also evaluated based on study outcome. The mean quality score for the airway response in studies of short-term marijuana use was 12.6 (range, 6-18). For studies that evaluated changes in pulmonary function secondary to long-term marijuana smoking, the mean quality score was 11.1 (range, 4-19). For the studies categorized as respiratory complications secondary to long-term marijuana smoking, the mean quality score was 10.3 (range, 4-18).

When also scoring publications based on disease-specific criteria, the studies that met the highest level of study quality using both scales were the 3 observational cohort studies.24,26,29 Therefore, a discussion of these 3 studies in greater detail is warranted. The most recent observational cohort study29 followed up a birth cohort of 930 participants in New Zealand to the age of 26 years. At 18, 21, and 26 years of age, marijuana and tobacco smoking were assessed with a standardized questionnaire, and pulmonary function was measured by spirometry. Confounding factors (age, tobacco smoking measured as cigarettes per day, and weight) were accounted for using a fixed-effects regression model. The authors report that during 8 years of follow-up, the dose-dependent relationship seen between cumulative marijuana smoking and decreasing FEV1/FVC was reduced to nonsignificant once the confounding factors were controlled for. The authors suggest that longer follow-up time is necessary for the dose-dependent relationship to persist in the context of confounding factors.

Another observational cohort study26 followed up a convenience sample of 394 white adults for 8 years. Among the study participants, 131 were heavy and habitual smokers of marijuana, 112 smoked marijuana and tobacco, 65 smoked only tobacco, and 86 were nonsmokers; 255 participants had measurement of FEV1 at least 6 times during an 8-year period. A random-effects model, including height, intensity of marijuana use (marijuana cigarettes per day), and intensity of tobacco use (cigarettes per day) was used and failed to show a significant relationship between marijuana smoking and FEV1 decline. Potential weaknesses of this study include lack of adjustment of duration of marijuana smoking and a low follow-up rate of 65%.

An additional observational cohort study24 used data obtained from 3-year follow-up surveys conducted during a 6-year period in a random stratified cluster sample of households in Tucson, Ariz, between 1981 and 1988. Using a 2-stage random-effects model with height and sex as constant covariates and nontobacco cigarette smoking and tobacco cigarette smoking (and their interactions) as time-dependent covariates, the authors showed that among 856 subjects for whom longitudinal pulmonary function data were available, nontobacco cigarette smokers had a significant decrease in FEV1/FVC ratio and previous nontobacco smokers had a decrease in FEV1. Of the total study population (n = 1802), current nontobacco cigarette smokers had an increase in chronic cough, phlegm, and wheeze after adjusting for age, tobacco smoking, and preexisting symptoms (from a prior assessment). The potential limitations of this study include the author's focus on subjects who smoked nontobacco cigarettes (which were assumed to contain marijuana), a relatively low number of respondents with current nontobacco cigarette smoking (range, 57-79 respondents), and different questions used to assess current nontobacco cigarette smoking in earlier surveys compared with later surveys.

We systematically reviewed 34 studies that assessed the impact of short-term marijuana use on airway response and long-term marijuana smoking on pulmonary function and respiratory complications. This literature supports a bronchodilating effect soon after marijuana inhalation, although the results of 1 study suggested a reversal of this effect after more prolonged marijuana smoking. Overall, these studies fail to report a consistent association between long-term marijuana smoking and FEV1/FVC ratio, DLCO, or airway hyperreactivity. Finally, the literature suggests that long-term marijuana smoking is associated with an increased risk of respiratory complications, including an increase in cough, sputum production, and wheeze, persisting after adjusting for tobacco smoking.

This research may inform the debate regarding the increasing use of marijuana for medical purposes accompanying recent legislative changes.40 Our findings, however, do not directly apply to pulmonary administration of tetrahydrocannabinol via specialized delivery systems.41

Our synthesis of the data is unique compared with other reviews in the literature. A recent review4 reported that marijuana smoking was associated with airway inflammation, acute bronchospasm, airflow obstruction, diffusion impairment, and emphysema. Another recent review3 noted an association between bronchodilation and increased cough, sputum, and airway inflammation with long-term marijuana smoking. Our systematic review covers a broader range of studies than previously included and also considers study quality.

The studies we reviewed were variable in quality when evaluated with a standardized assessment tool and a disease-specific assessment tool. Therefore, many methodological limitations need to be considered when interpreting the data reviewed herein. For example, many of the studies failed to adjust for important confounding factors, including tobacco, other inhaled drugs, and occupational and environmental exposures. Although some studies controlled for tobacco smoking status (ie, past, present, or never smoking), most, including the 3 observational cohort studies, did not control for dose or duration (ie, pack-years) of tobacco use, the best available measure of tobacco exposure, which is most strongly correlated with the development of obstructive lung disease. In addition, among the studies that examined the effect of long-term marijuana smoking on respiratory complications and pulmonary function, no standardized measure of marijuana dose or duration was defined. Although some studies reported marijuana cigarette–years of marijuana exposure, other studies reported only if the number of times marijuana was used by an individual was greater than a certain threshold, which varied from at least once to more than 900 times. Also, outcome measurements were not standardized. These factors pose difficulties in comparing and/or combining the results of studies. Finally, our search strategies, although extensive, may not have identified all possible studies that examined these relationships.

Despite these limitations, this review should alert primary care physicians to the potential adverse health outcomes associated with the widespread use and abuse of and dependence on marijuana. Large prospective studies should be designed that carefully account for potential confounding factors (including detailed assessments of tobacco, substance abuse, and occupational and environmental exposures) that can affect lung health. Such studies should use standard exposure and outcome criteria to accurately measure potential associations. The present findings should be considered in conjunction with a recent review42 that showed an association between marijuana smoking and premalignant changes in the lung. On the basis of currently available information, health care professionals should consider marijuana smoking in their patients who present with respiratory complications and advise their patients regarding the potential impact of this behavior on their health.

Correspondence: Jeanette M. Tetrault, MD, Clinical Epidemiology Research Center, West Haven VA Hospital, 950 Campbell Ave, Mail Code 151B, West Haven, CT 06516 (jeanette.tetrault@yale.edu).

Accepted for Publication: October 5, 2006.

Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Tetrault, Crothers, Moore, Mehra, and Fiellin. Acquisition of data: Tetrault, Crothers, Moore, and Fiellin. Analysis and interpretation of data: Tetrault, Crothers, Moore, Mehra, Concato, and Fiellin. Drafting of the manuscript: Tetrault, Concato, and Fiellin. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Crothers, Moore, Mehra, Concato, and Fiellin. Statistical analysis: Tetrault, Moore, and Concato. Obtained funding: Moore and Fiellin. Administrative, technical, and material support: Concato and Fiellin. Study supervision: Crothers, Concato, and Fiellin.

Financial Disclosure: None reported.

Funding/Support: This study was funded by the Program of Research Integrating Substance Use in Mainstream Healthcare (PRISM) with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The codirectors of PRISM are A. T. McLellan, PhD, of the Treatment Research Institute and B. J. Turner, MD, MSEd, of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Dr Tetrault is supported by the Veterans Affairs Office of Academic Affiliations. Dr Crothers is supported by the Yale Mentored Clinical Scholar Program (grant NIH/NCRR K12 RR0117594-01). Dr Moore is supported by NIDA grant R21 DA019246-02. Dr Mehra is supported by an American Heart Association award (grant 0530188N), an Association of Subspecialty Professors and CHEST Foundation of the American College of Chest Physicians T. Franklin Williams Geriatric Development Research Award, and a K23 Mentored Patient-Oriented Career Development Award (NIH/NHLBI HL079114). Dr Fiellin is a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Generalist Physician Faculty Scholar.

Previous Presentation: This work was presented at the 29th annual conference of the Society of General Internal Medicine; April 27, 2006; Los Angeles, Calif.

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Polen  MRSidney  STekawa  ISSadler  MFriedman  GD Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco. West J Med 1993;158596- 601
PubMed
Stern  RCByard  PJTomashefski  JF  JrDoershuk  CF Recreational use of psychoactive drugs by patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1987;111293- 299
PubMed Link to Article
Tennant  FS  JrPrendergast  TJ Medical manifestations associated with hashish. JAMA 1971;2161965- 1969
PubMed Link to Article
Kane  B Medical marijuana: the continuing story. Ann Intern Med 2001;1341159- 1162
PubMed Link to Article
Hazekamp  ARuhaak  RZuurman  Lvan Gerven  JVerpoorte  R Evaluation of a vaporizing device (Volcano) for the pulmonary administration of tetrahydrocannabinol. J Pharm Sci 2006;951308- 1317
PubMed Link to Article
Mehra  RMoore  BACrothers  KTetrault  JFiellin  DA The association between marijuana smoking and lung cancer: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2006;1661359- 1367
PubMed Link to Article

Figures

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Figure.

Literature search results.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Challenge Studies That Reported Effects of Short-term Marijuana Inhalation on Airway Response
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Studies That Reported Effects of Long-term Marijuana Inhalation on Pulmonary Function
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Studies That Reported Effects of Long-term Marijuana Inhalation on Respiratory Complications

References

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PubMed Link to Article
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PubMed Link to Article
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PubMed Link to Article
Cruickshank  EK Physical assessment of 30 chronic cannabis users and 30 matched controls. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1976;282162- 167
PubMed Link to Article
Henderson  RLTennant  FSGuerry  R Respiratory manifestations of hashish smoking. Arch Otolaryngol 1972;95248- 251
PubMed Link to Article
Hernandez  MJMartinez  FBlair  HTMiller  WC Airway response to inhaled histamine in asymptomatic long-term marijuana smokers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1981;67153- 155
Link to Article
Moore  BAAugustson  EMMoser  RPBudney  AJ Respiratory effects of marijuana and tobacco use in a US sample. J Gen Intern Med 2005;2033- 37
PubMed Link to Article
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PubMed Link to Article
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PubMed Link to Article
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PubMed Link to Article
Tashkin  DPSimmons  MSSherrill  DLCoulson  AH Heavy habitual marijuana smoking does not cause an accelerated decline in FEV1 with age. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155141- 148
PubMed Link to Article
Tashkin  DPSimmons  MSChang  PLiu  HCoulson  AH Effects of smoked substance abuse on nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;14797- 103
PubMed Link to Article
Taylor  DRPoulton  RMoffitt  TERamankutty  PSears  MR The respiratory effects of cannabis dependence in young adults. Addiction 2000;951669- 1677
PubMed Link to Article
Taylor  DRFergusson  DMMilne  BJ  et al.  A longitudinal study of the effects of tobacco and cannabis exposure on lung function in young adults. Addiction 2002;971055- 1061
PubMed Link to Article
Tilles  DSGoldenheim  PDJohnson  DCMendelson  JHMello  NKHales  CA Marijuana smoking as cause of reduction in single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Am J Med 1986;80601- 606
PubMed Link to Article
Tashkin  DPCoulson  AHClark  VA  et al.  Respiratory symptoms and lung function in habitual heavy smokers of marijuana alone, smokers of marijuana and tobacco, smokers of tobacco alone, and nonsmokers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;135209- 216
PubMed
Gaeta  TJHammock  RSpevack  TABrown  HRhoden  K Association between substance abuse and acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma. Acad Emerg Med 1996;31170- 1172
PubMed Link to Article
Tennant  FS  Jr Histopathologic and clinical abnormalities of the respiratory system in chronic hashish smokers. Subst Alcohol Actions Misuse 1980;193- 100
PubMed
Boulougouris  JCPanayiotopoulos  CPAntypas  ELiakos  AStefanis  C Effects of chronic hashish use on medical status in 44 users compared with 38 controls. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1976;282168- 172
PubMed Link to Article
Chopra  GS Studies on psycho-clinical aspects of long-term marihuana use in 124 cases. Int J Addict 1973;81015- 1026
PubMed
Mehndiratta  SSWig  NN Psychosocial effects of longterm cannabis use in India. A study of fifty heavy users and controls. Drug Alcohol Depend 1975;171- 81
PubMed Link to Article
Polen  MRSidney  STekawa  ISSadler  MFriedman  GD Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco. West J Med 1993;158596- 601
PubMed
Stern  RCByard  PJTomashefski  JF  JrDoershuk  CF Recreational use of psychoactive drugs by patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1987;111293- 299
PubMed Link to Article
Tennant  FS  JrPrendergast  TJ Medical manifestations associated with hashish. JAMA 1971;2161965- 1969
PubMed Link to Article
Kane  B Medical marijuana: the continuing story. Ann Intern Med 2001;1341159- 1162
PubMed Link to Article
Hazekamp  ARuhaak  RZuurman  Lvan Gerven  JVerpoorte  R Evaluation of a vaporizing device (Volcano) for the pulmonary administration of tetrahydrocannabinol. J Pharm Sci 2006;951308- 1317
PubMed Link to Article
Mehra  RMoore  BACrothers  KTetrault  JFiellin  DA The association between marijuana smoking and lung cancer: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2006;1661359- 1367
PubMed Link to Article

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