Dolan et al conducted a 16-week randomized intervention study of a supervised home-based exercise program consisting of progressive resistance training and aerobic exercise 3 times a week in 40 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women with increased waist-hip ratio and self-reported fat redistribution. Cardiorespiratory fitness (O2max) was markedly lower at baseline compared with reported values for healthy female subjects. Subjects randomized to exercise had significant improvement in O2max, endurance, strength, total muscle area, and muscle attenuation compared with the control group. No significant difference was seen in lipid levels, blood pressure, or abdominal visceral fat between the 2 groups; however, waist circumference improved in the exercise group. These findings indicate that a home-based exercise approach improves measures of cardiorespiratory fitness, endurance, and body composition in HIV-infected women.