Associations among nutritional variables were explored by partial correlation analysis and were adjusted for sample, age, and sex by pooling cross-country correlations weighted by sample size. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine associations between individuals’ vegetable, animal, and total protein intake (percentage of kilocalories or kilojoules) and their blood pressure. Potential confounders were added sequentially to the regression models, calculated with and without adjustment for height and weight because of known associations among vegetarianism, lighter body weight, and lower blood pressure6 (the overadjustment problem) and because height and weight affected associations, possibly because of their high precision of measurement compared with dietary variables.17 Adjustments were made for 5 models, with each successive model repeating the adjustments of the previous model, as follows: model 1 (adjustment for sample, age, and sex), model 2 (plus adjustment for special diet, history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus, family history of hypertension, moderate or heavy physical activity [usual hours per day], and dietary supplement intake), model 3 (plus adjustment for 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion and 7-day alcohol intake20), model 4 (plus adjustment for calcium, saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and dietary cholesterol intake11,21), model 5a (plus adjustment for dietary magnesium intake), and model 5b (plus adjustment for fiber intake).13,22 Model 5a and model 5b were considered separately because of multicollinearity.23 Interaction terms were included for age and sex. Because of significant interaction with sex, results for total protein intake are presented separately for men and women. Additional analyses used 24-hour urinary urea as a marker of total protein intake, adjusted (as in the INTERSALT study10) for sample, age, 7-day alcohol intake, body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), and urinary sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium excretion10 separately by sex because of significant interaction with sex.