We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Editorial |

Treatment of Hepatitis B Who, When, and How?

Stephen N. Wong, MD; Anna S. F. Lok, MD
Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(1):9-12. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.1.9.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines for more than 2 decades, worldwide there are approximately 350 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. Our understanding of the natural history of chronic HBV infection has steadily evolved over the past few decades. Availability of sensitive HBV DNA assays and application of sophisticated immunologic techniques have led to the recognition that HBV replication persists throughout the course of chronic HBV infection, and host immune response plays a pivotal role in HBV-related liver disease and recovery. Knowledge that HBV replicates via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, a process similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication, has led to rapid development in HBV treatments, many of which were initially developed for treatment of HIV infection.

Figures in this Article

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview


Place holder to copy figure label and caption

Dynamics of the different phases of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The solid gray horizontal line represents the normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and an HBV DNA value lower than 5 log10 copies/mL. The immune tolerant phase is usually characterized by high HBV DNA (thin black line) and low ALT levels (thick black line), while the immune clearance and the reactivation phases are characterized by persistently elevated ALT levels and high HBV DNA values or by fluctuating ALT (dashed black line) and/or HBV DNA levels (dotted black line). HBeAg indicates hepatitis Be antigen.

Graphic Jump Location




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

16 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

See Also...
Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles