0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Original Investigation |

Incidence of and Risk Factors for Chronic Opioid Use Among Opioid-Naive Patients in the Postoperative Period

Eric C. Sun, MD, PhD1; Beth D. Darnall, PhD1; Laurence C. Baker, PhD2,3; Sean Mackey, MD, PhD1
[+] Author Affiliations
1Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
2Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
3National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts
JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(9):1286-1293. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.3298.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Importance  Chronic opioid use imposes a substantial burden in terms of morbidity and economic costs. Whether opioid-naive patients undergoing surgery are at increased risk for chronic opioid use is unknown, as are the potential risk factors for chronic opioid use following surgery.

Objective  To characterize the risk of chronic opioid use among opioid-naive patients following 1 of 11 surgical procedures compared with nonsurgical patients.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Retrospective analysis of administrative health claims to determine the association between chronic opioid use and surgery among privately insured patients between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2013. The data concluded 11 surgical procedures (total knee arthroplasty [TKA], total hip arthroplasty, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, open cholecystectomy, laparoscopic appendectomy, open appendectomy, cesarean delivery, functional endoscopic sinus surgery [FESS], cataract surgery, transurethral prostate resection [TURP], and simple mastectomy). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to control for possible confounders, including sex, age, preoperative history of depression, psychosis, drug or alcohol abuse, and preoperatice use of benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, and antidepressants.

Exposures  One of the 11 study surgical procedures.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Chronic opioid use, defined as having filled 10 or more prescriptions or more than 120 days’ supply of an opioid in the first year after surgery, excluding the first 90 postoperative days. For nonsurgical patients, chronic opioid use was defined as having filled 10 or more prescriptions or more than 120 days’ supply following a randomly assigned “surgery date.”

Results  The study included 641 941 opioid-naive surgical patients (169 666 men; mean [SD] age, 44.0 [12.8] years), and 18 011 137 opioid-naive nonsurgical patients (8 849 107 men; mean [SD] age, 42.4 [12.6] years). Among the surgical patients, the incidence of chronic opioid in the first preoperative year ranged from 0.119% for Cesarean delivery (95% CI, 0.104%-0.134%) to 1.41% for TKA (95% CI, 1.29%-1.53%) The baseline incidence of chronic opioid use among the nonsurgical patients was 0.136% (95% CI, 0.134%-0.137%). Except for cataract surgery, laparoscopic appendectomy, FESS, and TURP, all of the surgical procedures were associated with an increased risk of chronic opioid use, with odds ratios ranging from 1.28 (95% CI, 1.12-1.46) for cesarean delivery to 5.10 (95% CI, 4.67-5.58) for TKA. Male sex, age older than 50 years, and preoperative history of drug abuse, alcohol abuse, depression, benzodiazepine use, or antidepressant use were associated with chronic opioid use among surgical patients.

Conclusions and Relevance  In opioid-naive patients, many surgical procedures are associated with an increased risk of chronic opioid use in the postoperative period. A certain subset of patients (eg, men, elderly patients) may be particularly vulnerable.

Figures in this Article

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.
Incidence of Chronic Opioid Use Among Opioid-Naive Surgical and Nonsurgical Patients

Illustrated is the incidence of chronic opioid use within 1 year after surgery for surgical patients and the annual incidence of chronic opioid use among nonsurgical patients. Error bars indicate 95% CIs, which were calculated using robust standard errors.

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.
Risk of Chronic Opioid Use Following Surgery

Illustrated are the adjusted odds ratios for chronic opioid use within 1 year after surgery for each study surgical procedure. Error bars indicate 95% CIs, which were calculated using robust standard errors. Our regression model included controls for age, sex, year of surgery, and overall health care utilization. In addition, the model also included controls for preoperative use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and antipsychotics, and controls for the medical comorbidities listed in Table 1.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

References

Correspondence

CME
Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment
Does postop pain relief increase or decrease the risk for later opioid use?
Posted on July 13, 2016
Peter J Liepmann MD FAAFP
none
Conflict of Interest: I have a long-term interest in pain management, and have a suboxone waiver.
This is important information, and I'm glad the authors plan to follow up to determine what medical interventions might prevent chronic opioid use post-surgery. The authors do not say that opiate use late after surgery represents abuse or addiction. More use of opiates a year after surgery might mean people got activated as abusers because of using opiates post-surgery, or that people having total hip and knee replacements are more likely to have significant pain needing opiates a year later than people having other surgeries or no surgery at all.
We just don't know which it is.
The nature of the study (retrospective review of administrative records) makes it more difficult to know what might have prevented this, but I wonder whether they can extract information from their data about relief from ACUTE pain postoperatively, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation.
Specifically,
1. Did more opioid use, or better acute pain relief, immediately post-surgery increase or decrease long term use? (The current belief among pain experts is that better relief of acute pain prevents conditional reinforcement of opioid use, and so would be expected to PREVENT long term use.) It would be useful to confirm or deny this. The unintentional result of this study might be to restrict opiate relief of acute pain, and thus paradoxically increase chronic opioid use and abuse.
2. Recent literature supports use of multimodal pain relief including intra-articular anesthetic, opiates and NSAIDS, peripheral nerve blocks and epidural analgesia after joint replacement. This seems to reduce pain, opiate need, and to accelerate rehabilitation. Can the authors extract information about the effects of such intervention on late opioid use? Did patients with multimodal pain relief need or use fewer opioids in the late postoperative period?
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

2,367 Views
0 Citations
×

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

See Also...
Related Multimedia

Author Interview

audio player

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles
Jobs
JAMAevidence.com

Care at the Close of Life: Evidence and Experience
Use of Opioid Analgesics for a Pain Crisis in an Inpatient Setting

Care at the Close of Life: Evidence and Experience
Pain Management and Symptomatic Measures

brightcove.createExperiences();