Accepted for Publication: February 27, 2015.
Published Online: June 15, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.2421.
Study concept and design: Pannick, Ashrafian, Beveridge, Wachter, Sevdalis.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Pannick, Davis, Ashrafian, Byrne, Athanasiou, Sevdalis.
Drafting of the manuscript: Pannick.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Pannick, Ashrafian, Athanasiou.
Obtained funding: Sevdalis.
Study supervision: Davis, Ashrafian, Beveridge, Wachter, Athanasiou, Sevdalis.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Sevdalis reports delivering team-based assessment and training interventions to hospitals in England and the United States on a consultancy basis through London Safety and Training Solutions Ltd and, in the past, holding a consultancy agreement with Green Cross Medical Ltd for the development of training materials for cancer tumor boards. Dr Wachter reports serving as the immediate past-chair of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) (for which he received a stipend) and a current member of the ABIM Foundation board; receiving a contract to UCSF from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for editing 2 patient-safety websites; receiving compensation from John Wiley and Sons for writing a blog; receiving royalties from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and McGraw-Hill for writing/editing several books; receiving a stipend and stock options for serving on the Board of Directors of IPC Healthcare; serving on the scientific advisory boards for Amino.com, PatientSafe Solutions, CRISI, QPID, and EarlySense (for which he receives stock options); and holding the Benioff endowed chair in hospital medicine from Marc and Lynne Benioff. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the National Institute for Health Research via the Imperial Patient Safety Translational Research Center (http://www.cpssq.org) (Drs Pannick, Davis, Byrne, and Sevdalis); from January 2015, the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care South London at King’s College Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust (Dr Sevdalis); the West Middlesex University Hospital National Health Service Trust (Drs Pannick and Beveridge); and the Department of Surgery and Cancer at Imperial College London (Drs Ashrafian and Athanasiou).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The authors were fully independent of their funding institutions, which took no part in the design or conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the National Health Service, National Institute for Health Research, or Department of Health.