Accepted for Publication: April 4, 2015.
Published Online: June 8, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.2092.
Study concept and design: Strom, Schinnar, Karlawish, Hennessy.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Strom, Schinnar, Hennessy, Teal, Bilker.
Drafting of the manuscript: Strom, Schinnar, Teal.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Strom, Schinnar, Karlawish, Hennessy, Bilker.
Statistical analysis: Schinnar, Teal, Bilker.
Obtained funding: Strom.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Strom, Hennessy.
Study supervision: Strom, Karlawish.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Strom reports receiving research funding from AstraZeneca and Bristol-Myers Squibb and serving as a consultant to Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bayer Healthcare LLC, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Novartis, and Pfizer. Dr Hennessy reports receiving research funding from AstraZeneca and Bristol-Myers Squibb and educational funds from Pfizer. He also reports acting as a consultant for AstraZeneca, Bayer Healthcare LLC, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Merck. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant TL1-RR024133 from the National Institutes of Health.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The National Institutes of Health had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Qufei Wu, MS (Biostatistics Analysis Core, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine), conducted the data management and programming needed to create the analytic data files. There was no financial compensation.