Accepted for Publication: March 19, 2015.
Published Online: May 11, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.1573.
Study concept and design: Layton, Sharpless, Brookhart.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Layton, Stürmer, Brookhart.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Meier, Sharpless, Stürmer, Jick, Brookhart.
Statistical analysis: Layton, Brookhart.
Obtained funding: Layton, Brookhart.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Stürmer.
Study supervision: Layton, Jick, Brookhart.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Stürmer receives investigator-initiated research funding and support as principal investigator (grant R01 AG023178) and coinvestigator (grant R01 AG042845) from the National Institute on Aging, as coinvestigator (grant R01 CA174453) from the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and as principal investigator of a pilot project from the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Dr. Stürmer does not accept personal compensation of any kind from any pharmaceutical company, although he receives salary support from the Center for Pharmacoepidemiology (current members: GlaxoSmithKline, UCB BioSciences, and Merck) and research support from pharmaceutical companies (Amgen and Merck) to the Department of Epidemiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC). Dr Brookhart receives investigator-initiated research funding from the NIH (grants R01 AG042845, R21 HD080214, and R01 AG023178) and through contracts with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Developing Evidence to Inform Decision Effectiveness program and the PCORI. He has received research support from Amgen for unrelated projects and has served as a scientific advisor for Amgen, Merck, and GSK (honoraria/payment received by the institution). He has received consulting fees from RxAnte and World Health Information Consultants. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was funded by the US National Institute on Aging (grant 5 R01 AG042845 02). Portions of the database infrastructure used for this project were funded by the Department of Epidemiology, UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health; the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research at UNC; the Comparative Effectiveness Research Strategic Initiative of UNC’s Clinical Translational Science Award (1 ULI RR025747); and the UNC School of Medicine.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: Preliminary results of this work were presented at the 31st International Convention on Pharmacoepidemiology and Therapeutic Risk Management; October 26, 2014; Taipei, Taiwan.
Additional Contributions: Dongmei Li, MS (UNC), and Pascal Egger (University of Basel) provided programming and database assistance. There was no financial compensation.
Correction: This article was corrected on May 21, 2015, to fix the abstract.