Accepted for Publication: December 24, 2014.
Published Online: April 6, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0295.
Study concept and design: Dzeng, Roland, Smith, Kelly, Barclay, Levine.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Dzeng, Colaianni, Chander, Smith, Levine.
Drafting of the manuscript: Dzeng, Smith, Kelly, Levine.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Obtained funding: Dzeng, Levine.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Dzeng, Smith.
Study supervision: All authors.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by training grant T32 HP10025-20 from the Health Resources and Service Administration, the Gates Cambridge Scholarship, and the Ho-Chiang Palliative Care Research Fellowship at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (Dr Dzeng).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: J. Randall Curtis, MD, MPH (Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington), provided institutional support and participant recruitment and commented on early drafts of the manuscript. Eric Larson, MD, MPH (Department of Medicine, University of Washington and Group Health Research Institute), provided insightful comments during the manuscript revision process. Jimmy Hoard, BFA (Palliative Care Center of Excellence, University of Washington), and Jonathan Fuld, MB ChB, PhD (Department of Respiratory Medicine, Addenbrooke’s Hospital), recruited participants. Sydney Dy, MD (Department of Health Policy, Johns Hopkins University), provided mentorship and helpful suggestions. Lucy Burkitt-Gray, BA (Hons) (University of Cambridge), assisted with data management. Zoe Fritz, MB ChB (Department of Acute Medicine, Addenbrooke’s Hospital), participated in discussions at early stages of the project. Lucy Burkitt-Gray was compensated for her contributions; no others listed here were otherwise compensated. We thank the physicians who generously gave their time to participate in the interviews.
Correction: This article was corrected on May 6, 2015, to fix an error in the text and Table 1.