Accepted for Publication: February 7, 2015.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Published Online: March 30, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0569.
Study concept and design: Ahmad, Sen, Shun-Shin, Davies, Cole, Francis.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Ahmad, Sen, Shun-Shin, Ouyang, Finegold, Al-Lamee, Davies, Cole.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ahmad, Sen, Shun-Shin, Ouyang, Finegold, Davies, Cole, Francis.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ahmad, Sen, Shun-Shin, Finegold, Al-Lamee, Cole, Francis.
Statistical analysis: Ahmad, Sen, Shun-Shin, Al-Lamee, Cole.
Obtained funding: Francis.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Ahmad, Finegold, Al-Lamee, Cole.
Study supervision: Ahmad, Sen, Shun-Shin, Al-Lamee, Davies, Cole, Francis.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre based at Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service (NHS) Trust and Imperial College London. Dr Sen (G1000357) is a Medical Research Council Fellow. Dr Shun-Shin (FS/14/27/30752), Dr Finegold (FS/14/25/30676), Dr Davies (FS/05/006), Dr Cole (FS/12/12/29294), and Dr Francis (FS/10/038) are British Heart Foundation Fellows.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, or the Department of Health.