Accepted for Publication: November 4, 2014.
Published Online: March 30, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.7856.
Study concept and design: Khera, Gerke, Horwitz, Girotra.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Khera, Cram, Girotra.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Khera, Lu, Vyas, Gerke, Rosenthal, Horwitz, Girotra.
Statistical analysis: Khera, Lu, Girotra.
Obtained funding: Girotra.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Cram, Lu, Rosenthal, Girotra.
Study supervision: Cram, Girotra.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Horwitz receives grant support from Edwards Lifesciences, St Jude Medical, and Biotronik. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: This study is supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health under award K08HL122527 (Dr Girotra) and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases under award K24-AR062133 (Dr Cram).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We are immensely grateful to Mary S. Vaughan-Sarrazin, PhD, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, for her critical input and guidance for the matched propensity score analysis for survey data. Dr Vaughan-Sarrazin did not receive any compensation for her effort.
Correction: This article was corrected on May 5, 2015. The footnotes for Table 2 were missing when the article posted online March 30, 2015.