Accepted for Publication: December 8, 2014.
Published Online: March 23, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0217.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Traeger, Moseley, McAuley.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Traeger, Henschke.
Obtained funding: Traeger, Moseley, McAuley.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Traeger, Hübscher, Lee.
Study supervision: Hübscher, Henschke, Moseley, McAuley.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Messrs Traeger and Lee are supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council PhD Scholarships. Dr Moseley is supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council research fellowship NHMRC ID 1061279. Drs Hübscher and McAuley are supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council project grant ID 1047827.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Chris Maher, PhD, The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, for his advice on early versions of the manuscript and the authors of primary studies included in our review who responded to our requests for further information and additional study data.