Electronic database searches were conducted on MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, and EMBASE. The MEDLINE search was performed on all files between 1966 and 2000 as follows: [*heart failure, congestive/] and [adult/] and [patient readmission/sn] or [exp disease management/] or [exp patient care team/cl, mt, og, ed, st, sn, td, ma, ut (classification, methods, organization & administration, education, standards, statistics & numerical data, trends, manpower, utilization)] or [exp follow-up studies/] or [*patient readmission/] or [exp patient discharge] or [exp patient education/] or [exp aftercare/] or [patient care planning/] or [exp home care services, hospital-based/]. The HealthSTAR search was performed on all files between 1975 and October 2000. We also searched PubMed and the Cochrane Review. We hand-searched relevant journals including the Journal of General Internal Medicine and the Archives of Internal Medicine. We also hand-searched abstracts from relevant cardiology meetings. Two members of the research team (V.F. and F.H.G.-S.) reviewed citations, removed duplicates, and obtained the full text of all potentially relevant articles.