0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Original Investigation |

Using the Coronary Artery Calcium Score to Predict Coronary Heart Disease Events:  A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis FREE

Mark J. Pletcher, MD, MPH; Jeffrey A. Tice, MD; Michael Pignone, MD, MPH; Warren S. Browner, MD, MPH
[+] Author Affiliations

From the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (Drs Pletcher and Browner), Division of General Internal Medicine (Drs Pletcher and Tice), and Department of Medicine (Dr Browner), University of California, San Francisco; the Division of General Internal Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill School of Medicine (Dr Pignone); and the Research Institute, California Pacific Medical Center (Dr Browner). The authors have no relevant financial interest in this article.


Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(12):1285-1292. doi:10.1001/archinte.164.12.1285.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background  Primary prevention of coronary heart disease is most appropriate for patients at relatively high risk. Measurement of coronary artery calcium has been proposed as a way to improve risk assessment, but it is unknown whether it adds predictive information to standard risk factor assessment.

Methods  We systematically searched electronic databases for relevant articles published between January 1, 1980, and March 19, 2003, and hand searched bibliographies. We included studies that reported measuring the coronary artery calcium score by electron beam computed tomography in asymptomatic subjects and subsequent follow-up of those patients for coronary events and that presented score-specific relative risks, adjusted for established risk factors. Two abstractors verified inclusion criteria and abstracted data from each study. We estimated adjusted relative risks associated with 3 standard categories of coronary artery calcium scores (1-100, 101-400, and >400), compared with a score of 0, and used a random-effects model for meta-analysis.

Results  Meta-analysis of the 4 studies meeting inclusion criteria yielded a summary adjusted relative risk of 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.9) for a coronary artery calcium score of 1 to 100. Relative risk estimates for higher calcium scores were higher, ranging from 3.0 to 17.0 but varied significantly among studies. Subgroup analyses suggested that differences among studies in outcome adjudication (blinded or not), measurement of other risk factors (direct or by patient history), tomographic slice thickness (3 or 6 mm), and/or proportion of female study subjects may account for this heterogeneity.

Conclusion  The coronary artery calcium score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease events.

Figures in this Article

Recently updated evidence-based guidelines call on internists to make a careful assessment of their patients' baseline coronary heart disease (CHD) risk and to target primary prevention efforts such as cholesterol-lowering drugs1 and aspirin2 to high-risk patients. Predicting who will develop CHD events, however, is difficult. Standard risk factor analysis can help stratify patients into risk groups, but events are still uncommon in patients considered to be at high risk (2% per year) and not rare in patients considered to be at lower risk (0.5%-1.0% per year).1 More effective assessment of CHD risk may improve the cost-effectiveness and safety of such primary prevention efforts.

Coronary artery calcium (CAC) may be a marker of an increased risk of CHD events. Coronary artery calcium is only present in atherosclerotic arteries3 and can be quantified quickly and noninvasively with electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) at a cost of approximately $400 to $500 per scan. The resulting CAC score represents an assessment of the presence and extent of atherosclerosis and may therefore be useful in predicting future CHD events. On the other hand, calcification may be merely a reflection of increased atherosclerosis conferred by standard CHD risk factors such as age, sex, cholesterol, blood pressure, smoking, and diabetes. Calcification may actually reflect stabilization and maturation of atherosclerotic plaques and lead to fewer myocardial infarctions and CHD deaths.4,5 Assessment of the predictive value of the CAC score after adjustment for standard CHD risk factors is therefore critical.

Several cohort studies have been published in which previously asymptomatic persons were studied with EBCT and followed-up over time for CHD events. These studies, as well as a meta-analysis,6 have reported that higher CAC scores are associated with higher risks of CHD events. The question of whether the CAC score adds incremental value to standard CHD risk factor assessment, however, remains controversial.

In the present study, we systematically searched published literature, extracted and standardized relative risk estimates adjusted for established CHD risk factors from each eligible study, calculated clinically relevant summary estimates of relative risk for patients with different CAC scores, and investigated why results might differ among studies.

LITERATURE REVIEW

We searched MEDLINE and Current Contents databases for articles published between January 1, 1980, and July 25, 2001, and PubMed for articles published between July 1, 2001, and March 19, 2003. Because no specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are consistently used for studies of CAC, we used a broad title word search to maximize sensitivity for identifying all potentially relevant articles and relied on manual review to discard the many irrelevant articles we captured. We used the following search strategies: MEDLINE, f (xxs cardiovascular diseases or xxs coronary vessels) and (tw coronary calci# or tw electron or tw ultrafast); Current Contents, f tw coronary calci# or tw electron tomography or tw electron ct or tw ultrafast ct or tw ultrafast tomography; and PubMed, (("Cardiovascular diseases"[MESH] OR "coronary vessels"[MESH]) AND ((coronary[TI] AND ((calcium[TI] OR calcification[TI]) OR calcifications[TI])) OR ((electron[TI] AND (tomography[TI] OR ct[TI])) OR (ultrafast[TI] AND (tomography[TI] OR ct[TI]))))). We also reviewed bibliographies of key articles and consulted with experts in the field to identify all important patient cohorts. Abstracts and titles were scanned and articles were eliminated if inclusion criteria were clearly not met. When unclear, articles were reviewed in full. Studies reported in abstract form only were excluded.

STUDY ELIGIBILITY

We included articles that reported identifying a cohort of individuals who were initially without symptoms of active coronary artery disease, and who were studied with noncontrast EBCT to obtain a CAC score and then followed up over time for the development of CHD events. Only articles that presented CAC score–specific relative risks adjusted for established CHD risk factors such as age, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking were included. Articles that presented duplicate or overlapping data were grouped, and only the article presenting the data in the most definitive and extractable form was included. Two of us (M.J.P. and M.P.) independently abstracted inclusion criteria for all articles presenting CAC score–specific relative risks.

DATA EXTRACTION

Two of us (M.J.P. and J.A.T.) abstracted data from each eligible article using a standard data extraction form, collecting data on study subjects (recruitment source, selection criteria, demographics, and CHD risk factors with method of determination), the EBCT protocol used (scanner make and model, slice thickness, and scoring method), follow-up (tracking method, mean follow-up time, and proportion lost to follow-up), method of outcome adjudication (types and definitions of CHD events recorded, formal outcome adjudication by more than 1 investigator, and blinding of adjudicators to CAC score), and blinding of study subjects and their physicians to the CAC score. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Adjusted CAC score–specific odds ratios, relative risks, or hazard ratios were abstracted in whatever categories or form was available. Confidence intervals (CIs) from 1 study7 were supplied at our request in a written communication from the first author (Nathan D. Wong, PhD, July 9, 2002).

DATA STANDARDIZATION

To provide clinically relevant and easily applied results, we standardized results into 4 CAC score categories (0, 1-100, 101-400, and >400). These or similar categories have been used in several previous publications8,9 and represent a simple categorization of the range of CAC scores encountered in clinical practice. This standardization was accomplished in 1 of 2 ways, depending on how the data were presented.

There were 2 articles that reported adjusted relative risk measurements in CAC score categories that were different than the categories we chose.7,10 For these articles, we first calculated crude relative risks from presented data and then estimated the effects of multivariate adjustment on the point estimate and standard error by comparing these crude estimates with the adjusted estimates presented in each article. We then estimated crude relative risks in each standard CAC score category (1-100, 101-400, and >400, compared with 0) and applied the multivariate adjustment effect, as estimated above.

The other 2 articles11,12 presented adjusted relative risk measurements per unit increase in the CAC score (log-transformed,11 or age- and sex-adjusted percentile—the "CS%" score12). To obtain an adjusted relative risk estimate for each of our standard CAC score categories (1-100, 101-400, and >400, compared with 0), we estimated the median absolute CAC score and the median CS% score in each of these categories using published cross-sectional data,12 and assuming that the subject of our investigation was a 50- to 54-year-old man. The median absolute CAC scores were 0 (for a CAC score of 0), 26 (in the 1-100 category), 183 (in the 101-400 category), and 664 (in the >400 category). The median CS% scores were 0% (for a CAC score of 0), 31% (in the 1-100 category), 75% (in the 101-400 category), and 94% (in the >400 category). These representative scores were used to calculate adjusted relative risk estimates using the equations presented in each article.

The primary assumptions we made to standardize the data were that (1) CAC scores were distributed uniformly within CAC score categories,7,11 (2) the maximum CAC score was 1000,7,11 (3) the effect of multivariate adjustment was homogeneous across categories within each study,7,11 and (4) the subject of interest was a 50- to 54-year-old man.11,12 Assumptions 2 and 4 were amenable to sensitivity analyses.

DATA SYNTHESIS

Summary adjusted odds ratios for each standard CAC score category were calculated by combining standardized odds ratios from each study using a random effects model.13 These were reported as relative risks because outcomes were rare. Heterogeneity was assessed statistically, using a conservative P value cutoff of .10.14 Analyses were repeated using a fixed effects model for comparison. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 7.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, Tex).

SUBGROUP ANALYSES

To explore potential sources of heterogeneity and assess the effects of potentially important differences in study methodology, we performed several subgroup analyses. We grouped studies according to (1) types of outcomes included, (2) whether formal blinded outcome adjudication was performed, (3) tomographic scan thickness (3 mm vs 6 mm), (4) overall annual CHD rate, and (5) proportion of female subjects. Statistical testing for interaction and linear trends were performed using meta-regression commands available in Stata 7.0.

LITERATURE SEARCH

We identified 2809 articles from MEDLINE, Current Contents, and PubMed that met our preliminary search criteria and eliminated 1196 based on the title, 1500 based on title and abstract, and 101 based on review of the full-text article. In total, 1616 were eliminated because EBCT was not used, 333 because CAC was not measured (EBCT was used for a different purpose), 313 because no follow-up for CHD outcomes was documented, 19 because the patients were not asymptomatic, and 516 because they were duplicates, review articles, editorials, conference proceedings, or other types of articles not containing original data. This left 13 articles5,7,912,1521 for consideration (Table 1).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Articles Presenting Data on Coronary Heart Disease Outcomes and CAC Scores
DATA EXTRACTION AND STANDARDIZATION

Four studies met all inclusion criteria.7,1012 There were differences in study subjects, EBCT scan thickness, follow-up completeness, types of CHD events recorded, outcome adjudication methodology, annual event rate, and method of assessing CHD risk factors among the 4 studies (Table 2). No study reported blinding of study subjects and/or physicians to the subject's CAC score. Mean follow-up was 3.6 years or less. Most studies assessed risk factors by self-report rather than direct measurement. In total, these studies represent over 13 000 person-years of observation time.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Characteristics of Studies Selected for Meta-analysis

We estimated adjusted relative risks for each CAC score category in each study (Table 3). This process led to wide confidence intervals for the article by Arad et al10 because only 1 subject in the reference (CAC score = 0) category had a coronary event during follow-up.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Adjusted Odds Ratios Associated With Different CAC Scores as Presented in Each Study and After Standardization
DATA SYNTHESIS (META-ANALYSIS)

After adjusting for established CHD risk factors, the risk of CHD events increased progressively with greater calcification (Figure 1). The relative risk estimates among studies were similar for the CAC score 1 to 100 category (P for heterogeneity = .48) but varied significantly for the 101 to 400 (P = .07) and greater than 400 (P = .02) categories. Fixed-effects modeling yielded slightly different results: adjusted relative risks were 2.1 (95% CI, 1.6-2.9) for the CAC score 1 to 100, 4.2 (95% CI, 2.5-7.2) for the 101 to 400, and 7.2 (95% CI, 3.9-13.0) for the greater than 400 categories compared with the 0 category.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.

Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) comparing risk of a coronary heart disease event in persons with low (1-100), medium (101-400), and high (>400) coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores to persons without calcification. Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval (CI).

Graphic Jump Location
SENSITIVITY ANALYSES

Adjusted relative risks and CIs changed only slightly when we varied our assumptions (Table 4). Relative risks were statistically significant under any set of assumptions.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Sensitivity Analysis: Summary Adjusted Odds Ratios for Each CAC Score Category Under Different Assumptions
SUBGROUP ANALYSES

We grouped studies according to study characteristics that we thought could affect the relative risks they reported. Differences in measurement of CHD risk factors (direct or by patient history), outcome adjudication (blinded or not), tomographic slice thickness (3 mm or 6 mm), and proportion of female subjects may have contributed to the observed differences in the 2 highest CAC score categories (Figure 2). Inspection and influence diagramming showed that 1 study,11 which reported the lowest relative risk measurements, was primarily responsible for these differences. This study was also the only one to measure coronary artery disease risk factors directly and use an EBCT slice thickness of 6 mm, was 1 of 2 studies with blinded outcome adjudication, and included the lowest proportion of women (11%). If we excluded this study, relative risks in the remaining 3 studies7,10,12 were similar and summary estimates were higher: 2.6 (95% CI, 1.7-4.0) for the CAC score 1 to 100, 8.8 (95% CI, 4.1-19.0) for the 101 to 400, and 17 (95% CI, 6.9-40.0) for the greater than 400 categories (all P values for heterogeneity >.32). Meta-analysis of the 2 studies in which the outcome adjudication process was blinded11,12 yielded lower relative risks: 1.7 (95% CI, 1.1-2.7) for the CAC score 1 to 100, 3.0 (95% CI: 1.3-6.9) for the 101 to 400, and 4.3 (95% CI: 1.5-12.0) for the greater than 400 categories (all P values for heterogeneity >.17).

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.

Subgroup analysis: summary adjusted odds ratios (ORs) stratified by study characteristics. Summary adjusted ORs compare the risk of a coronary heart disease (CHD) event in persons with different coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores with the risk in a person without calcification. P values refer to a test for interaction between subgroups or to a test of linear association (for "annual rate of myocardial infarction (MI) and CHD death" and "percentage of female subjects." EBCT indicates electron-beam computed tomography. Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval.

Graphic Jump Location

In the present study, we show that CAC is associated with an increased risk of CHD events, even when other risk factors for CHD are taken into account. The relative risks associated with increasing CAC score are at least as large as those associated with established CHD risk factors. Persons with even low amounts of CAC (CAC score, 1-100) have about twice the risk of CHD events compared with persons who have no evidence of CAC (relative risk, 2.1), and high CAC scores (>400) are associated with very high relative risks (4.3-17.0). In comparison, the presence of diabetes or tobacco use or extreme values of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or blood pressure confer a relative risk of approximately 1.5 to 3.4.22 Our findings are consistent with a previous meta-analysis6 but are more clinically applicable because they are adjusted for established risk factors.

More precise estimates of the relative risks associated with medium to high CAC scores would be helpful for clinicians and researchers, but large differences among studies make this goal currently unattainable. The source of these differences has been the subject of ongoing public debate2330; the present analysis serves to clarify and extend that discussion in several ways. First, through our data standardization process, we make it possible to directly compare results across studies. Second, we document that the evident differences in study results are not likely to be merely the result of chance. Finally, our analysis of different subgroups of studies (Figure 2) helps identify which study characteristics may have accounted for the observed differences.

For example, 2 study characteristics previously thought to be important do not appear to account for differences among studies. Some have postulated that studies including patients with high average CHD risk might find the CAC score less helpful in predicting risk28,31; this trend was not evident. Others contend that studies including myocardial infarctions, CHD death, and revascularizations ("soft" CHD events) might find the CAC score to be more predictive because high CAC scores may in themselves lead to more aggressive revascularization.16 Again, no such trend was evident.

On the other hand, a number of other study characteristics seemed to be important in explaining differences in study results. Studies reporting unblinded outcome adjudication and those reporting indirect measurement of established CHD risk factors generally reported higher relative risk estimates, which could be consistent with bias from measurement error. On the other hand, differences in study results may also be explained by differences in EBCT scanning technique: the only study using a 6-mm EBCT slice technique found significantly lower relative risks, which could be consistent with lower scan sensitivity and less power to identify very low-risk individuals.

Unexpectedly, the proportion of female subjects in each study was also associated with study results: studies in which more women were enrolled showed larger relative risk estimates. Arad et al10 commented on a small, insignificant trend in the opposite direction within their study; none of the other authors noted testing for such interaction. Previous comparisons between men and women in the sensitivity and specificity of the CAC score in predicting angiographic stenoses have shown mixed results, with 1 study finding higher specificity in women,32 1 finding lower sensitivity in women,33 and 1 finding similar test characteristics in men and women.34 While this effect could be the result of confounding by other differences in study characteristics, it highlights the importance of inclusion and separate analysis of women in future studies of CAC and CHD.

Our analysis has some limitations. First, the standardization process that was required to compare results between studies is in itself not standard or routine. The problem of standardizing disparately presented results for purposes of meta-analysis is not unique to this article35; such standardization often requires complex methodology and assumptions. We believe our methods and assumptions were necessary and generally defensible, and we have shown that modification of some of those assumptions produced minimal changes to our results (Table 4). Some might also argue with our categorization of CAC scores. While our categories were somewhat arbitrary and likely resulted in some loss of information, we believe that they provide an intuitive and useful way to think about a patient's score (none, low, medium, or high) and capture much of the important score variation in the middle-aged persons who are most likely to undergo careful CHD risk stratification.

Second, we are limited by the small number of studies available for analysis. With only 4 studies available for subgroup analyses, it is not possible to untangle the potential causes of observed differences in study results, especially given the fact that 1 study was an outlier in terms of both study results and many of the important study characteristics.11 We are also unable to assess for publication bias, though we would not expect such bias given public interest in both positive and negative results.

Finally, no meta-analysis can overcome the limitations of source studies. Causal inference is always limited when interpreting the results of observational studies; accordingly, this analysis should not be interpreted as evidence that CAC causes CHD events, only that it predicts them. Generalizability of our results is limited by the age, sex, and ethnic composition of study samples. Follow-up is generally limited to 3 or 4 years, leading to uncertainty regarding how long the relative protection from CHD events implied by a CAC score of 0 will endure. None of the articles described blinding of participants and their physicians to the CAC score, and only 1 study directly measured established risk factors such as hypertension and cholesterol.

Our principal finding, however, transcends these limitations: CAC scores are associated with CHD events, even when other CHD risk factors are accounted for. This has important implications for clinical practice. Consider the case of a 55-year-old woman with stage I hypertension, an HDL-C level of 40 mg/dL (1.0 mmol/L), an LDL-C level of 155 mg/dL (4.0 mmol/L) despite diet therapy, and no other CHD risk factors. According to current guidelines, this 55-year-old woman, whose 10-year CHD risk estimate is about 13%,22 should probably receive both aspirin and cholesterol-lowering drug therapy, aiming for a goal LDL-C level of 130 mg/dL (3.4 mmol/L).1,2 Using age- and sex-adjusted estimates of this woman's predicted CAC score,12 we estimate her "posttest" CHD risk to be 6% if her CAC score = 0; 12% if CAC score = 1-100; 29% if CAC score = 101-400; or 48% if CAC score >400, using the summary adjusted relative risk estimates from all 4 studies (Figure 1). A 0 score, which about half of such women will have, might therefore lead us to recommend against cholesterol-lowering drug therapy (given the cost36) and aspirin therapy (given the risk of hemorrhagic stroke associated with aspirin use2). A score higher than 100, however, might lead us to recommend both continued aspirin use and more aggressive lipid control aiming for a goal LDL-C level of less than 100 mg/dL (<2.6 mmol/L).1 Using the more conservative estimates reported in our analysis from the 2 studies using blinded outcome adjudication, her posttest CHD risk estimates change somewhat (8%, 14%, 23%, and 31%), but the clinical implications are the same. Deciding when and in whom such risk stratification might be worthwhile and cost-effective requires formal decision analysis and economic modeling, but this analysis suggests that measuring a patient's CAC score may sometimes provide valuable information for clinicians.

Several ongoing cohort studies, such as the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis,37 the St Francis Heart Study,38 and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study,39 will address many of the problems inherent in earlier studies. We believe, however, that our meta-analysis has already answered 1 important, unresolved question: Does the CAC score predict coronary events even when standard CHD risk factors are taken into account? The answer, at least among the populations represented in these studies, is yes. Whether these results are valid in other populations and whether the added predictive value of the CAC score is worth the cost of a computed tomographic scan are important questions for further study.

Corresponding author and reprints: Mark J. Pletcher, MD, MPH, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, 500 Parnassus Ave, MU 420 West, Box 0560, San Francisco, CA 94143 (e-mail: mpletcher@epi.ucsf.edu).

Accepted for publication August 1, 2003.

Dr Pletcher was supported by grant D14 HP00178 from the Health Resources and Services Administration, Rockville, Md.

We would like to thank Chuck McCulloch, PhD, Yadon Arad, MD, Paolo Raggi, MD, Nathan D. Wong, PhD, and Rita Redberg, MD, for their cooperation and input.

Not Available, Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001;2852486- 2497
PubMed Link to Article
Hayden  MPignone  MPhillips  CMulrow  C Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events: a summary of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136161- 172
PubMed Link to Article
Blankenhorn  D Coronary arterial calcification: a review. Am J Med Sci. 1961;2421- 9
Link to Article
Lee  THBrennan  TA Direct-to-consumer marketing of high-technology screening tests. N Engl J Med. 2002;346529- 531
PubMed Link to Article
Doherty  TMWong  NDShavelle  RMTang  WDetrano  RC Coronary heart disease deaths and infarctions in people with little or no coronary calcium. Lancet. 1999;35341- 42
PubMed Link to Article
O'Malley  PTaylor  AJJackson  JLDoherty  TMDetrano  RC Prognostic value of coronary electron-beam computed tomography for coronary heart disease events in asymptomatic populations. Am J Cardiol. 2000;85945- 948
PubMed Link to Article
Wong  NDHsu  JCDetrano  RCDiamond  GEisenberg  HGardin  JM Coronary artery calcium evaluation by electron beam computed tomography and its relation to new cardiovascular events. Am J Cardiol. 2000;86495- 498
PubMed Link to Article
Rumberger  JABrundage  BHRader  DJKondos  G Electron beam computed tomographic coronary calcium scanning: a review and guidelines for use in asymptomatic persons. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999;74243- 252
PubMed Link to Article
Raggi  PCallister  TQCooil  B  et al.  Identification of patients at increased risk of first unheralded acute myocardial infarction by electron-beam computed tomography. Circulation. 2000;101850- 855
PubMed Link to Article
Arad  YSpadaro  LAGoodman  KNewstein  DGuerci  AD Prediction of coronary events with electron beam computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;361253- 1260
PubMed Link to Article
Yang  TDoherty  TMWong  NDDetrano  RC Alcohol consumption, coronary calcium, and coronary heart disease events. Am J Cardiol. 1999;84802- 806
PubMed Link to Article
Raggi  PCooil  BCallister  TQ Use of electron beam tomography data to develop models for prediction of hard coronary events. Am Heart J. 2001;141375- 382
PubMed Link to Article
DerSimonian  RLaird  N Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials. 1986;7177- 188
PubMed Link to Article
Petitti  DB Approaches to heterogeneity in meta-analysis. Stat Med. 2001;203625- 3633
PubMed Link to Article
Arad  YSpadaro  LAGoodman  K  et al.  Predictive value of electron beam computed tomography of the coronary arteries: 19-month follow-up of 1173 asymptomatic subjects. Circulation. 1996;931951- 1953
PubMed Link to Article
Secci  AWong  NTang  WWang  SDoherty  TDetrano  R Electron beam computed tomographic coronary calcium as a predictor of coronary events: comparison of two protocols. Circulation. 1997;961122- 1129
PubMed Link to Article
Detrano  RCWong  NDDoherty  TM  et al.  Coronary calcium does not accurately predict near-term future coronary events in high-risk adults. Circulation. 1999;992633- 2638
PubMed Link to Article
Wayhs  RZelinger  ARaggi  P High coronary artery calcium scores pose an extremely elevated risk for hard events. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39225- 230
PubMed Link to Article
Wong  NBudoff  MJPio  JDetrano  RC Coronary calcium and cardiovascular event risk: Evaluation by age- and sex-specific quartiles. Am Heart J. 2002;143456- 459
PubMed Link to Article
Park  RDetrano  RXiang  M  et al.  Combined use of computed tomography coronary calcium scores and C-reactive protein levels in predicting cardiovascular events in nondiabetic individuals. Circulation. 2002;1062073- 2077
PubMed Link to Article
Vliegenthart  ROudkerk  MSong  Bvan der Kuip  DAHofman  AWitteman  JC Coronary calcification detected by electron-beam computed tomography and myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study. Eur Heart J. 2002;231596- 1603
PubMed Link to Article
Wilson  PWD'Agostino  RBLevy  DBelanger  AMSilbershatz  HKannel  WB Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation. 1998;971837- 1847
PubMed Link to Article
Redberg  RFShaw  LJ A review of electron beam computed tomography: implications for coronary artery disease screening. Prev Cardiol. 2002;571- 78
PubMed Link to Article
O'Rourke  RABrundage  BHFroelicher  VF  et al.  American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association expert consensus document on electron-beam computed tomography for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36326- 340
PubMed Link to Article
Wong  NDDetrano  RCAbrahamson  DTobis  JMGardin  JM Coronary artery screening by electron beam computed tomography: facts, controversy, and future. Circulation. 1995;92632- 636
PubMed Link to Article
Pitt  BRubenfire  M Risk stratification for the detection of preclinical coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1999;992610- 2612
PubMed Link to Article
Schmermund  ABaumgart  DErbel  R Potential and pitfalls of electron-beam computed tomography in detecting coronary atherosclerosis. Basic Res Cardiol. 1999;94427- 444
PubMed Link to Article
Raggi  P Coronary calcium on electron beam tomography imaging as a surrogate marker of coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2001;87 (4A) 27A- 34A
PubMed Link to Article
Rumberger  JA Electron beam CT and coronary calcium score. Circulation. 1998;972095- 2096
PubMed Link to Article
Detrano  R Medicine based on scientific evidence versus medicine based on evangelical marketing. Am J Cardiol. 2001;88409- 410
PubMed Link to Article
Arad  Y Beyond traditional risk factor analysis for coronary artery disease: the case for coronary artery calcium assessment with electron beam computed tomography. Prev Cardiol. 2002;562- 67
PubMed Link to Article
Budoff  MJShokooh  SShavelle  RMKim  HTFrench  WJ Electron beam tomography and angiography: sex differences. Am Heart J. 2002;143877- 882
PubMed Link to Article
Olson  JCEdmundowicz  DBecker  DJKuller  LHOrchard  TJ Coronary calcium in adults with type 1 diabetes: a stronger correlate of clinical coronary artery disease in men then in women. Diabetes. 2000;491571- 1578
PubMed Link to Article
Rumberger  JASheedy  PFIBreen  JFSchwartz  RS Coronary calcium, as determined by electron beam computed tomography, and coronary disease on arteriogram: effect of patient's sex on diagnosis. Circulation. 1995;912995- 2996
PubMed Link to Article
Browner  WSWestenhouse  JTice  JA What if Americans ate less fat? a quantitative estimate of the effect on mortality. JAMA. 1991;2653285- 3291
PubMed Link to Article
Prosser  LAStinnett  AAGoldman  PA  et al.  Cost-effectiveness of cholesterol-lowering therapies according to selected patient characteristics. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132769- 79
PubMed Link to Article
Not Available, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Available at: http://www.mesa-nhlbi.org/. Accessed May 9, 2003.
Arad  YNewstein  DRoth  MGuerci  AD Rationale and design of the St Francis Heart Study: a randomized clinical trial of atorvastatin plus antioxidants in asymptomatic persons with elevated coronary calcification. Control Clin Trials. 2001;22553- 572
PubMed Link to Article
Friedman  GDCutter  GRDonahue  RP  et al.  CARDIA: study design, recruitment, and some characteristics of the examined subjects. J Clin Epidemiol. 1988;411105- 1116
PubMed Link to Article

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.

Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) comparing risk of a coronary heart disease event in persons with low (1-100), medium (101-400), and high (>400) coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores to persons without calcification. Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval (CI).

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.

Subgroup analysis: summary adjusted odds ratios (ORs) stratified by study characteristics. Summary adjusted ORs compare the risk of a coronary heart disease (CHD) event in persons with different coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores with the risk in a person without calcification. P values refer to a test for interaction between subgroups or to a test of linear association (for "annual rate of myocardial infarction (MI) and CHD death" and "percentage of female subjects." EBCT indicates electron-beam computed tomography. Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Articles Presenting Data on Coronary Heart Disease Outcomes and CAC Scores
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Characteristics of Studies Selected for Meta-analysis
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Adjusted Odds Ratios Associated With Different CAC Scores as Presented in Each Study and After Standardization
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Sensitivity Analysis: Summary Adjusted Odds Ratios for Each CAC Score Category Under Different Assumptions

References

Not Available, Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001;2852486- 2497
PubMed Link to Article
Hayden  MPignone  MPhillips  CMulrow  C Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events: a summary of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136161- 172
PubMed Link to Article
Blankenhorn  D Coronary arterial calcification: a review. Am J Med Sci. 1961;2421- 9
Link to Article
Lee  THBrennan  TA Direct-to-consumer marketing of high-technology screening tests. N Engl J Med. 2002;346529- 531
PubMed Link to Article
Doherty  TMWong  NDShavelle  RMTang  WDetrano  RC Coronary heart disease deaths and infarctions in people with little or no coronary calcium. Lancet. 1999;35341- 42
PubMed Link to Article
O'Malley  PTaylor  AJJackson  JLDoherty  TMDetrano  RC Prognostic value of coronary electron-beam computed tomography for coronary heart disease events in asymptomatic populations. Am J Cardiol. 2000;85945- 948
PubMed Link to Article
Wong  NDHsu  JCDetrano  RCDiamond  GEisenberg  HGardin  JM Coronary artery calcium evaluation by electron beam computed tomography and its relation to new cardiovascular events. Am J Cardiol. 2000;86495- 498
PubMed Link to Article
Rumberger  JABrundage  BHRader  DJKondos  G Electron beam computed tomographic coronary calcium scanning: a review and guidelines for use in asymptomatic persons. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999;74243- 252
PubMed Link to Article
Raggi  PCallister  TQCooil  B  et al.  Identification of patients at increased risk of first unheralded acute myocardial infarction by electron-beam computed tomography. Circulation. 2000;101850- 855
PubMed Link to Article
Arad  YSpadaro  LAGoodman  KNewstein  DGuerci  AD Prediction of coronary events with electron beam computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;361253- 1260
PubMed Link to Article
Yang  TDoherty  TMWong  NDDetrano  RC Alcohol consumption, coronary calcium, and coronary heart disease events. Am J Cardiol. 1999;84802- 806
PubMed Link to Article
Raggi  PCooil  BCallister  TQ Use of electron beam tomography data to develop models for prediction of hard coronary events. Am Heart J. 2001;141375- 382
PubMed Link to Article
DerSimonian  RLaird  N Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials. 1986;7177- 188
PubMed Link to Article
Petitti  DB Approaches to heterogeneity in meta-analysis. Stat Med. 2001;203625- 3633
PubMed Link to Article
Arad  YSpadaro  LAGoodman  K  et al.  Predictive value of electron beam computed tomography of the coronary arteries: 19-month follow-up of 1173 asymptomatic subjects. Circulation. 1996;931951- 1953
PubMed Link to Article
Secci  AWong  NTang  WWang  SDoherty  TDetrano  R Electron beam computed tomographic coronary calcium as a predictor of coronary events: comparison of two protocols. Circulation. 1997;961122- 1129
PubMed Link to Article
Detrano  RCWong  NDDoherty  TM  et al.  Coronary calcium does not accurately predict near-term future coronary events in high-risk adults. Circulation. 1999;992633- 2638
PubMed Link to Article
Wayhs  RZelinger  ARaggi  P High coronary artery calcium scores pose an extremely elevated risk for hard events. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39225- 230
PubMed Link to Article
Wong  NBudoff  MJPio  JDetrano  RC Coronary calcium and cardiovascular event risk: Evaluation by age- and sex-specific quartiles. Am Heart J. 2002;143456- 459
PubMed Link to Article
Park  RDetrano  RXiang  M  et al.  Combined use of computed tomography coronary calcium scores and C-reactive protein levels in predicting cardiovascular events in nondiabetic individuals. Circulation. 2002;1062073- 2077
PubMed Link to Article
Vliegenthart  ROudkerk  MSong  Bvan der Kuip  DAHofman  AWitteman  JC Coronary calcification detected by electron-beam computed tomography and myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study. Eur Heart J. 2002;231596- 1603
PubMed Link to Article
Wilson  PWD'Agostino  RBLevy  DBelanger  AMSilbershatz  HKannel  WB Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation. 1998;971837- 1847
PubMed Link to Article
Redberg  RFShaw  LJ A review of electron beam computed tomography: implications for coronary artery disease screening. Prev Cardiol. 2002;571- 78
PubMed Link to Article
O'Rourke  RABrundage  BHFroelicher  VF  et al.  American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association expert consensus document on electron-beam computed tomography for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36326- 340
PubMed Link to Article
Wong  NDDetrano  RCAbrahamson  DTobis  JMGardin  JM Coronary artery screening by electron beam computed tomography: facts, controversy, and future. Circulation. 1995;92632- 636
PubMed Link to Article
Pitt  BRubenfire  M Risk stratification for the detection of preclinical coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1999;992610- 2612
PubMed Link to Article
Schmermund  ABaumgart  DErbel  R Potential and pitfalls of electron-beam computed tomography in detecting coronary atherosclerosis. Basic Res Cardiol. 1999;94427- 444
PubMed Link to Article
Raggi  P Coronary calcium on electron beam tomography imaging as a surrogate marker of coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2001;87 (4A) 27A- 34A
PubMed Link to Article
Rumberger  JA Electron beam CT and coronary calcium score. Circulation. 1998;972095- 2096
PubMed Link to Article
Detrano  R Medicine based on scientific evidence versus medicine based on evangelical marketing. Am J Cardiol. 2001;88409- 410
PubMed Link to Article
Arad  Y Beyond traditional risk factor analysis for coronary artery disease: the case for coronary artery calcium assessment with electron beam computed tomography. Prev Cardiol. 2002;562- 67
PubMed Link to Article
Budoff  MJShokooh  SShavelle  RMKim  HTFrench  WJ Electron beam tomography and angiography: sex differences. Am Heart J. 2002;143877- 882
PubMed Link to Article
Olson  JCEdmundowicz  DBecker  DJKuller  LHOrchard  TJ Coronary calcium in adults with type 1 diabetes: a stronger correlate of clinical coronary artery disease in men then in women. Diabetes. 2000;491571- 1578
PubMed Link to Article
Rumberger  JASheedy  PFIBreen  JFSchwartz  RS Coronary calcium, as determined by electron beam computed tomography, and coronary disease on arteriogram: effect of patient's sex on diagnosis. Circulation. 1995;912995- 2996
PubMed Link to Article
Browner  WSWestenhouse  JTice  JA What if Americans ate less fat? a quantitative estimate of the effect on mortality. JAMA. 1991;2653285- 3291
PubMed Link to Article
Prosser  LAStinnett  AAGoldman  PA  et al.  Cost-effectiveness of cholesterol-lowering therapies according to selected patient characteristics. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132769- 79
PubMed Link to Article
Not Available, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Available at: http://www.mesa-nhlbi.org/. Accessed May 9, 2003.
Arad  YNewstein  DRoth  MGuerci  AD Rationale and design of the St Francis Heart Study: a randomized clinical trial of atorvastatin plus antioxidants in asymptomatic persons with elevated coronary calcification. Control Clin Trials. 2001;22553- 572
PubMed Link to Article
Friedman  GDCutter  GRDonahue  RP  et al.  CARDIA: study design, recruitment, and some characteristics of the examined subjects. J Clin Epidemiol. 1988;411105- 1116
PubMed Link to Article

Correspondence

CME


You need to register in order to view this quiz.
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

2,852 Views
248 Citations

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

See Also...
Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles
Jobs
×