0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Original Investigation |

Risk of Stroke in Women Exposed to Low-Dose Oral Contraceptives:  A Critical Evaluation of the Evidence FREE

Wee-Shian Chan; Joel Ray; Eugene K. Wai; Shiphira Ginsburg; Mary E. Hannah; Paul N. Corey; Jeffrey S. Ginsberg
Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(7):741-747. doi:10.1001/archinte.164.7.741.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background  Use of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) has been reported to be associated with stroke. With current OCPs containing less than 50 µg of ethinyl estradiol, and many earlier studies reporting the association between OCPs and stroke, subjected to biases, we determined whether such an association exists and, if so, the magnitude of the risk.

Methods  Two independent searches were conducted to obtain relevant articles from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation (1970 to June 2000). Eligible articles published in English describing OCP use and stroke outcomes were retrieved, and relevant data were abstracted. Pooling of results from these studies was performed using odds ratios (ORs) provided, and heterogeneity was calculated using χ2 analysis.

Results  From 779 potential articles, 36 eligible studies describing 20 distinct populations were retrieved (4 cohort and 16 case-control studies). The pooled OR from the cohort studies demonstrated no increased stroke risk with OCP use (0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-1.78; P = .01); the pooled OR from the case-control studies showed a significant association (2.13; 95% CI, 1.59-2.86; P<.001). The risk of stroke with OCP use, however, was significant only with thrombotic stroke (2.74; 95% CI, 2.24-3.35; P = .009) and not with hemorrhagic stroke or stroke death. There was statistically significant heterogeneity among these studies, and potential biases and confounders were not adequately addressed.

Conclusions  These results cast doubt on a true association between low-dose OCPs and stroke because of the low absolute magnitude of the ORs, the severe methodological limitations, and the ORs of less than 1.0 in the cohort studies. The association is tenuous at best and perhaps nonexistent.

Figures in this Article

The oral contraceptive pill (OCP) was introduced in the late 1950s, and it has become the most popular form of birth control among women worldwide. The first report of a woman who had a stroke while taking the OCP was published in 1961.1 Subsequently, several case-control studies24 performed in the late 1960s supported an association between OCP use and stroke. However, these early studies were profoundly flawed; the diagnosis of stroke, which is inaccurate on clinical grounds, was not confirmed with radiologic imaging, leading to a strong potential for bias and a misclassification of the presence and absence of and the type of stroke. For example, women with neurologic symptoms not due to stroke were likely misdiagnosed as having stroke if objective testing was not performed. Furthermore, differentiating hemorrhagic from nonhemorrhagic stroke is difficult or impossible without modern imaging techniques.

Important formulation changes have also occurred, severely limiting the generalizibility of these early studies to women using current OCPs, which contain much lower doses of estrogen and, in some cases, different formulations of progesterone.57 Current OCPs contain one third to one fifth of the amount of ethinyl estradiol as early OCP preparations. It is highly likely that lowering of the estrogenic dose has reduced the thrombogenicity of the OCP; the role of altering the progestin component in causing thrombosis remains controversial.

A pooled analysis8 of 2 recent studies from the United States reported that the low-dose (<50 µg of ethinyl estradiol) OCP was not associated with stroke. This conclusion contrasted with the results of 2 recently published multinational studies9,10 that showed an association between low-dose OCPs and stroke. These divergent results have led to a controversy that is amplified further by the results of a recent meta-analysis11 that reported a statistically significant association between low-dose OCPs and ischemic stroke.

Stroke is rare in young women; the baseline incidence of stroke in women younger than 35 years is estimated to be 6 to 20 per 100 000, and the incidence increases with age.12 Its long-term effect can be devastating, and approximately one third of strokes are fatal.12 Most OCP preparations now prescribed contain low-dose ethinyl estradiol.5 In addition, the indications for OCP administration have increased,6 and use of the OCP in older women is expected to increase in frequency. These issues underline the importance of determining whether an association exists between low-dose OCPs and stroke and, if so, the magnitude of the risk.

IDENTIFICATION OF STUDIES

Two of us (W.-S.C. and J.R.) conducted independent searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation for studies published between 1970 and June 2000. Potentially eligible articles were identified from MEDLINE using the following MeSH headings: "cerebrovascular disease" or "cerebrovascular accident" or "stroke" or "cerebral infarction" and "oral contraceptive pill" or "birth control pill" or "oral contraceptives." Search terms used for EMBASE and Science Citation were "stroke" or "cerebrovascular disease" and "birth control pills" or "oral contraceptives." We included only articles that were published in English and that reported use of estrogen-containing OCPs and strokes as primary outcomes. We excluded case series and case reports in which a comparative control group was absent.

We categorized potentially eligible studies according to their design: cohort studies and case-control studies. No randomized controlled trials were identified. The retrieved studies were then reviewed independently by 2 of us (W.-S.C. and J.R.) to ensure eligibility, and when there were multiple publications of the same population, only data from the most recent publication with the most relevant information were used for data abstraction.

DATA ABSTRACTION

Abstraction of data was performed by 2 of us (S.G. and E.K.W.) who were masked to authorship of the article, institution, journal of publication, and funding source. When differences were found in data abstraction, they were reviewed again by the same investigators, and any persistent differences were resolved through consensus.

The type of stroke designation in each article was accepted. For analysis, thrombotic stroke included thromboembolic and ischemic strokes, whereas hemorrhagic stroke included strokes considered to be caused by subarachnoid, intracranial, or intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Low-dose OCPs were defined as those containing less than 50 µg of ethinyl estradiol. Second- and third-generation OCPs were defined as pills containing less than 50 µg of ethinyl estradiol; the former contained norgestimate, norethindrone, levonorgestrel, or lynestrenol,9,10 and the latter contained either gestodene or desogestrel.9,10

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Several analyses were performed. We combined the odds ratios (ORs) from studies using the technique of weighing the studies by within-study variance, as described by Fleiss.13 Heterogeneity among studies was calculated using χ2 analysis.13 When between-study variances are heterogeneous, the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of calculated pooled ORs (using weights based on within-study variability) may be inappropriately narrow. As such, we calculated a modified pooled OR that takes into consideration within- and between-study variances (denoted as ORb) to derive a more conservative (wider) 95% CI.

Several subgroups were pooled and analyzed. First, all studies including all strokes were summarized. In addition, subgroup analyses according to study design (cohort vs case-control), stroke type (hemorrhagic stroke, thrombotic stroke, and stroke death), and classification of patients with stroke according to status of OCP use (current and ever-users) and type of OCP exposure (second- vs third-generation OCP). Differences among subgroups were calculated using the standard gaussian Z statistic.

To investigate the possible presence of publication bias, a funnel plot of the sample size against the natural logarithm of reported ORs was plotted.14 In addition, we examined whether differences existed in the magnitude of the association between OCPs and stroke risk in studies with 250 or more cases compared with studies with less than 250 cases of stroke.

On initial search, 779 potential articles were found; after initial screening, 40 studies9,10,1552 were considered to be potentially eligible (Figure 1). No additional studies from Science Citation or EMBASE or through review of bibliographies of retrieved articles were identified, but 2 publications53,54 detailing the methods for 3 of these studies9,10,15 were retrieved.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1

Retrieval of eligible studies.

Graphic Jump Location

Four potentially eligible studies were excluded because exposure to the OCP was not reported consistently (n = 2)16,17 or the primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular events that included stroke (n = 2).18,19 Thus, a final list of 36 articles9,10,15,2052 representing 20 distinct study populations was obtained. Data were abstracted from the most relevant and recent study of each study population (Table 1).9,10,15,2436

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Eligible Articles Used for Data Abstraction

There were 4 cohort studies,2023 16 case-control studies,9,10,15,2436 and no randomized controlled trials. The number of cases (n = 4213) and controls (n = 10 893) from the 16 case-control studies are displayed in Table 1. In the 4 cohort studies,2023 there were 130 stroke outcomes from a pooled cohort of more than a million women. These studies were conducted predominantly in women 44 years or younger.

Seven studies were conducted in North America,20,21,2426,33,34 4 in the United Kingdom,22,27,31,32 5 in Europe,23,28,30,35,36 and 1 in Asia.29 Three studies9,10,15 involved participants from more than 1 country. These 20 studies spanned 3 decades. Sixteen studies9,10,15,2023,2529,31,33,35,36 were published after 1980, and 8 of these studies9,10,15,2528,36 were published after 1990.

Study participants were only exposed to OCPs that contained 50 µg or less of ethinyl estradiol in 8 studies.9,10,15,21,22,25,26,28 In the remaining 12 studies,20,23,24,27,2936 the type of OCP exposure was not explicitly stated.

Stroke outcomes were classified into thrombotic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and stroke death (Table 1). Twelve studies20,21,2431,33,34 included thrombotic and hemorrhagic strokes, 5 studies9,10,22,35,36 evaluated only thrombotic strokes, and 3 studies15,23,32 evaluated only hemorrhagic strokes. In addition, 3 studies21,23,31 evaluated stroke deaths.

There were many methodological issues of concern in these studies. In 14 studies,9,10,15,20,2326,3136 a combination of clinical and objective diagnostic testing was used to define stroke cases; in 6 studies,21,22,2730 the definition of stroke was not explicitly stated. The study investigator was masked to the status of OCP use when diagnosing strokes in only 4 studies.9,15,20,31 Stroke cases were independently verified or adjudicated in only 8 studies9,10,15,24,25,27,29,36 by either an independent physician or a committee.

Information on exposure to the OCP was obtained mostly through direct patient interview or questionnaire9,10,15,20,22,2426,2830,3436 or through physicians' records or prescriptions.21,23,27,31,32 The investigators were masked to the outcome status (ie, whether stroke occurred) when assessing OCP exposure in only 2 studies.20,29

In 15 studies,9,10,15,2434,36 cases and controls were matched for age. In the cohort studies,2023 age adjustments were made when calculating relative risks. Eleven studies9,10,15,20,2427,3032 considered the confounding effects of hypertension by adjusting or stratifying for hypertension in the analysis; 5 studies21,22,28,33,34 excluded participants with hypertension. Similarly, most studies either adjusted for20,22,25,27,30 or stratified for smoking in the analysis.9,10,15,24,26,28,31,33,36 The presence of concurrent diabetes mellitus was adjusted for in 4 studies9,10,25,26 and excluded from 5 studies.21,22,28,33,34 Body mass index was adjusted for in 8 studies.9,10,15,20,22,25,26,30 The presence of migraine was addressed in 1 study.24

In 17 studies,9,10,15,2128,3032,3436 the authors presented the risk of stroke in current users of OCPs. These studies, however, provided varying definitions of current OCP use: 1 month or less,24,26,27,31 3 months or less,9,10,15,32 6 months or less,36 and 1 year or less.21,22 In 6 of these studies,23,25,28,30,34,35 the period for current use was not stated. Three studies20,27,29 presented data on "ever-users" of the OCP, encompassing current and noncurrent users. In the remaining study,33 the status of use was not stated explicitly.

The stroke risk in OCP-exposed participants was compared with that in noncurrent users of the OCP in 12 studies9,10,15,21,2326,32,3436 and never-users in 6 studies20,22,2729,31 and was not clearly specified in 2 studies.30,33

ANALYSES

The overall pooled OR for the risk of stroke in women exposed to the OCP was 1.79 (95% CI, 1.62-1.97) (Table 2). There was significant heterogeneity among the studies (P<.001). Taking into account the between-study variability, the pooled OR, or ORb, was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.44-2.57). The pooled OR from the 4 cohort studies2023 demonstrated no increase in the risk of stroke with OCP exposure (ORb, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.51-1.78). The pooled ORb of the 16 case-control studies,9,10,15,2436 however, was statistically significant (ORb, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.59-2.86). The pooled OR of the cohort studies was significantly different from that of the case-control studies (P = .03).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Pooled Odds Ratios From Various Studies Using Different Criteria

When pooling by stroke subtype, the ORb of thrombotic stroke associated with OCP exposure was 2.74 (95% CI, 2.24-3.35), whereas the risk of hemorrhagic stroke was 1.30 (95% CI, 0.99-1.71) (Table 2). The ORb of studies investigating the association of OCP exposure and stroke death was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.51-1.74).

The association of OCPs and stroke was significant in current users of the OCP only and not in ever-users (Table 2). Analysis of study subgroups based on stated levels of ethinyl estradiol exposure revealed that the ORs were significant in women taking OCPs containing 50 µg or more and less than 50 µg of ethinyl estradiol. Analyses of studies by progestin type (second- or third-generation OCP) showed significant association with stroke for both types.

Women 35 years or older taking the OCP (ORb, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.62-3.14) seem to be at slightly increased risk of stroke compared with women younger than 35 years (ORb, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00-1.72) (Table 2). Similarly, smokers (ORb, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.17-5.64) taking the OCP seem to have an increased stroke risk compared with nonsmokers (ORb, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.46-2.37). The strongest association, however, was found in women with hypertension (ORb, 9.82; 95% CI, 6.97-13.84) compared with normotensive individuals (ORb, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.46-2.92).

When we examined the effect of stroke risk according to the definition of control groups—noncurrent users or never-users—the magnitude of this association seemed to be less significant if never-users were used as controls compared with noncurrent users. Similarly, use of community controls seemed to decrease the strength of the association compared with use of hospitalized controls.

Significant heterogeneity (P<.05) was observed when pooling these studies, whether by stroke type, study type, status of OCP use, or risk factors (smoking or the presence of hypertension) (Table 2). Heterogeneity, however, was not significant when studies were stratified by age (<35 vs ≥35 years).

PUBLICATION BIAS

We investigated the possibility of publication bias by use of a funnel plot14 (Figure 2). The number of stroke cases in each case-control study was plotted against the natural logarithm of the OR of stroke risk. Visually, it appears that the study points are symmetrically distributed in an "inverted funnel," consistent with a lack of publication bias. We further performed subgroup analysis of case-control studies with 250 or more cases compared with those with less than 250 cases. The ORs were similar for both groups: 1.86 (95% CI, 1.39-2.50) and 2.50 (95% CI, 1.45-4.32), respectively (P = .35), again consistent with a lack of publication bias.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2

Funnel plot exploring publication bias: number of stroke cases in each case-control study (sample size) vs the natural logarithm of the odds ratio of stroke risk.

Graphic Jump Location

The results of this study cast doubt on a true association between low-dose OCPs and stroke. In favor of an association is the consistency and the statistically significant increase in the ORs of the case-control studies, the finding that thrombotic stroke risk is increased with OCP use, and the increased risk of stroke in current users of the OCP. However, the low absolute magnitude of the ORs; the severe methodological limitations, including the potential for bias and control of confounders; the heterogeneity of the studies; and the ORs of less than 1.0 in the cohort studies and studies evaluating stroke deaths render the association tenuous at best and perhaps nonexistent.

There are important biases and confounders in the case-control studies that may account for the observed association between low-dose OCPs and stroke. For example, in most studies, there was strong potential for diagnostic suspicion bias. Only 6 case-control studies9,15,2426,29 had independent adjudication and confirmation of stroke diagnosis, and in only 4 studies10,15,29,31 were investigators masked to a woman's exposure to the OCP when diagnosing stroke. This is likely to result in an overestimate of OCP users, and it could skew the result toward an association between OCPs and stroke risk. In addition, the definitions of current and noncurrent OCP use were inconsistent. In some studies,24,26,27,31 patients were defined as current users if they had taken the OCP within 1 month; in other studies,21,22 it was within 1 year. Therefore, study participants defined as noncurrent users in some studies could be considered current user in others. This could result in a woman being classified as an OCP "user" in one study and a "nonuser" in another.

Quantitatively, we further demonstrated that the magnitude of association between OCPs and stroke in this meta-analysis could be affected by 2 separate analyses: (1) selection of control groups (community vs hospitalized) and (2) status of OCP use in the control group (never-users vs noncurrent users). When we compared the risk of stroke in studies using community controls, the pooled ORs were lower than those found in hospitalized controls. This difference might be a result of less complete ascertainment of exposure to the OCP in hospital-based controls compared with community-based controls. When we further analyzed the studies using noncurrent users for comparison (thereby including past users or never-users), the pooled OR of stroke was increased slightly over those studies in which never-users were used (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.21-3.02 vs OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.06-2.27). Women who are never-users do not take the OCP or may not have been prescribed the OCP because of the presence of other risk factors, such as hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, personal or family history of cardiovascular disease, and a perceived increased baseline risk of stroke. Similarly, noncurrent users may reflect a group of women with a lowered baseline risk of stroke having also been previously challenged with higher-dose OCPs and remained stroke free.

Given the point estimate suggesting a weak association between OCPs and stroke (OR, <2.0) and the limitations discussed previously herein, the true relationship might be weaker than estimated or possibly nonexistent between OCPs and stroke.

Further evidence that an association between OCPs and stroke is in doubt is the negative finding from pooling of the 4 cohort studies. Although limited by the number of stroke cases, these 4 studies might be methodologically superior to the case-control studies and hence might present a more valid assessment of stroke risk.

There are limitations to this meta-analysis. Ideally, meta-analyses should be performed using randomized controlled trials. Many experts contend that meta-analytic techniques should not be applied to observational studies55 because the meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials is based on the assumption that each individual trial provides an unbiased estimate of a treatment effect, with the variability among studies due to random variation.55,56 The variability among observational studies may not be random but instead may be the result of inherent biases or confounders. Therefore, they argue that meta-analysis of observational studies is liable to produce "spurious precision."56 On the other hand, other experts57,58 argue that systematic reviews of observational studies are still important, as a return to nonsystematic "summaries" of studies in the literature is more likely to lead to biased conclusions.

In addition, study quality assessment has been advocated to be an important part of a meta-analysis. Much of the literature published on quality assessment of studies, however, was performed on assessment of randomized controlled trials59; there is little on observational studies. For this study, we chose to include all eligible studies in the analysis and to highlight important methodological deficiencies to enable the reader to assess the validity of our conclusion that the association of OCPs with stroke is certainly in doubt.

With the widespread use of the OCP by millions of women worldwide, the public health implications from a substantial increase in stroke risk in women exposed to OCPs would be important. Our data suggest that if an association does exist, it is likely to be small, in relative and absolute terms, particularly in women younger than 35 years who do not smoke and are normotensive. When counseling a woman younger than 35 years regarding the risk of OCPs and stroke, the baseline incidence of ischemic stroke is estimated to be less than 10 per 100 000 and should initially be stated12; even if a 1.3-fold increase in the risk of stroke is present, her absolute risk of ischemic stroke is no more than 13 per 100 000. On the other hand, unwanted pregnancies, which can occur with less effective forms of birth control, can result in a significant maternal mortality rate of 9 per 100 000 live births.60

The risk of stroke associated with OCPs is likely to increase in the presence of hypertension, smoking, and increasing age. Therefore, in women older than 35 years, the OCP should probably be administered with great caution in smokers with hypertension and only if the best efforts are made to control blood pressure and stop smoking.

Based on the results of this study and assessment of the quality of the published data, it cannot be concluded with certainty that there is an association between OCP use and stroke. If such an association exists, it has probably been exaggerated, particularly in women younger than 35 years who are normotensive and do not smoke. Future studies exploring the relationship between OCPs and stroke should be performed that minimize biases and confounders and carefully address the methodological limitations of previous studies.

Corresponding author: Wee-Shian Chan, MD, FRCPC, MSc, Women's College Ambulatory Care Centre, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, 76 Grenville St, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1B2 (e-mail: wee-shian.chan@sw.ca).

Accepted for publication May 13, 2003.

Lorentz  IT Parietal lesion and Enovid [letter]. BMJ. 1962;21191
Link to Article
Inman  WHWVessey  MP Investigation of deaths from pulmonary, coronary, and cerebral thrombosis and embolism in women of childbearing age. BMJ. 1968;2193- 199
PubMed Link to Article
Vessey  MPDoll  R Investigation of the relation between use of oral contraceptives and thromboembolic disease. BMJ. 1968;2199- 205
PubMed Link to Article
Masi  ATDugdale  M Cerebrovascular disease associated with the use of oral contraceptives: a review of the English-language literature. Ann Intern Med. 1970;72111- 121
PubMed Link to Article
Borodistsky  RFisher  WSand  M The 1995 Canadian Contraceptive Study. J Soc Obstet Gynaecol Can. 1996;181- 31
The Canadian Consensus Conference on Contraception, Hormonal contraception. J Soc Obstet Gynaecol Can. 1998;73581- 598
Speroff  LDe Cherney  A An evaluation of a new generation of oral contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol. 1993;811034- 1047
PubMed
Schwartz  SMPettini  DBSiscovick  DS  et al.  Stroke and use of low-dose oral contraceptives in young women: a pooled analysis of two US studies. Stroke. 1998;292277- 2284
PubMed Link to Article
WHO Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception, Ischaemic stroke and combined oral contraceptives: results of an international, multicentre, case-control study. Lancet. 1996;348498- 505
PubMed Link to Article
Heinemann  LAJLewis  MAThorogood  MSpitzer  WOGuggenmoos-Holzmann  IBruppacher  R Case-control study of oral contraceptives and risk of thromboembolic stroke: results from International Study on Oral Contraceptives and Health of Young Women. BMJ. 1997;3151502- 1504
PubMed Link to Article
Gillum  LAMamidipudi  SKJohnston  SC Ischemic stroke risk with oral contraceptives: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2000;28472- 78
PubMed Link to Article
Petitti  DBSidney  SQuesenberry  CP  JrBernstein  A Incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction in women of reproduction age. Stroke. 1997;28280- 283
PubMed Link to Article
Fleiss  JL Combining evidence from fourfold tables. Fleiss  JLStatistical Methods for Rates and Proportions. 2nd ed. New York, NY John Wiley & Sons Inc1981;160- 187
Petitti  D Meta-analysis, Decision-analysis and Cost-effectiveness Analysis.  New York, NY Oxford University Press Inc1994;70- 86
WHO Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception, Haemorrhagic stroke, overall stroke risk, and combined oral contraceptives: results of an international, multicentre, case-control study. Lancet. 1996;348505- 510
PubMed Link to Article
Bonita  R Cigarette smoking, hypertension and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage: a population-based case-control study. Stroke. 1986;17831- 835
PubMed Link to Article
Thompson  SGGreenberg  GMeade  TW Risk factors for stroke and myocardial infarction in women in the United Kingdom as assessed in general practice: a case-control study. Br Heart J. 1989;61403- 409
PubMed Link to Article
Porter  JBJick  HWalker  AM Mortality among oral contraceptive users. Obstet Gynecol. 1987;7029- 32
PubMed
Chow  LPLin  CCKeyvan-Larijani  EChang  KK Oral contraceptives and mortality from circulatory system diseases: an epidemiologic study in Taiwan. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1983;21297- 304
PubMed Link to Article
Stampfer  MJWillett  WCColditz  GASpeizer  FEHennekens  CH A prospective study of past use of oral contraceptive agents and risk of cardiovascular diseases. N Engl J Med. 1988;3191313- 1317
PubMed Link to Article
Porter  JBHunter  JRJick  HStergachis  A Oral contraceptives and nonfatal vascular disease. Obstet Gynecol. 1985;661- 4
PubMed
Mant  JPainter  RVessey  M Risk of myocardial infarction, angina and stroke in users of oral contraceptives: an updated analysis of a cohort study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998;105890- 896
PubMed Link to Article
Hirvonen  EIdanpaan-Heikkila  J Cardiovascular death among women under 40 years of age using low-estrogen oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices in Finland from 1975 to 1984. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;163281- 284
PubMed Link to Article
Collaborative Group for the Study of Stroke in Young Women, Oral contraceptives and stroke. JAMA. 1975;231718- 722
PubMed Link to Article
Petitti  DBSidney  SBernstein  AWolf  SQuesenberry  CZiel  HK Stroke in users of low-dose oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med. 1996;3358- 15
PubMed Link to Article
Schwartz  SMSiscovick  DSLongstreth  WT  et al.  Use of low-dose oral contraceptives and stroke in young women. Ann Intern Med. 1997;127596- 603
PubMed Link to Article
Hannaford  PCCroft  PRKay  CR Oral contraception and stroke: evidence from the Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study. Stroke. 1994;25935- 942
PubMed Link to Article
Lidegaard  O Oral contraception and risk of a cerebral thromboembolic attack: results of a case-control study. BMJ. 1993;306956- 963
PubMed Link to Article
Chang  KKChow  LPRider  RV Oral contraceptives and stroke: a preliminary report on an epidemiologic study in Taiwan, China. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1986;24421- 430
Link to Article
Haapaniemi  HHillbom  MJuvela  S Lifestyle-associated risk factors for acute brain infarction among persons of working age. Stroke. 1997;2826- 30
PubMed Link to Article
Thorogood  MMann  JMurphy  MVessey  M Fatal stroke and use of oral contraceptives: findings from a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;13635- 45
PubMed
Inman  WHW Oral contraceptives and fatal subarachnoid haemorrhage. BMJ. 1979;21468- 1470
PubMed Link to Article
Oleckno  WA The risk of stroke in young adults: an analysis of the contribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Public Health. 1988;10245- 55
PubMed Link to Article
Jick  HPorter  JRothman  KJ Oral contraceptives and nonfatal stroke in healthy young women. Ann Intern Med. 1978;8958- 60
PubMed Link to Article
Mettinger  KLSoderstrom  CENeiman  J Stroke before 55 years of age at Karolinska Hospital 1973-77: a study of 399 well-defined cases. Acta Neurol Scand. 1984;70415- 422
PubMed Link to Article
Carolei  AMarini  CDe Matteis  Gfor the Italian National Research Council Study Group on Stroke in the Young, History of migraine and risk of cerebral ischemia in young adults. Lancet. 1996;3471502- 1506
PubMed Link to Article
Collaborative Group for the Study of Stroke in Young Women, Oral contraception and increased risk of cerebral ischemia or thrombosis. N Engl J Med. 1973;288871- 878
PubMed Link to Article
Heinemann  LAJLewis  MASpitzer  WO  et al.  Thromboembolic stroke in young women: a European case-control study on oral contraceptives. Contraception. 1998;5729- 37
PubMed Link to Article
Stampfer  MJWillett  WCColditz  GASpeizer  FEHennekens  CH Past use of oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis in the context of the Nurses' Health Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;163285- 291
PubMed Link to Article
Colditz  GA Oral contraceptive use and mortality during 12 years of follow-up: the Nurses' Health Study. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120821- 826
PubMed Link to Article
Petitti  DBSidney  SQuesenberry  CBernstein  A Incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction in women of reproductive age. Stroke. 1997;28280- 283
PubMed Link to Article
Petitti  DBWingerd  JPellegrin  FRamcharan  S Risk of vascular disease in women: smoking, oral contraceptives, noncontraceptive estrogens, and other factors. JAMA. 1979;2421150- 1154
PubMed Link to Article
Petitti  DBWingerd  J Use of oral contraceptives, cigarette smoking, and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Lancet. 1978;2234- 236
PubMed Link to Article
Longstreth  WTNelson  LMKoepsell  TDvan Belle  G Subarachnoid hemorrhage and hormonal factors in women: a population-based case-control study. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121168- 173
PubMed Link to Article
Layde  PMOry  HWBeral  VKay  CR Incidence of arterial disease among oral contraceptive users: Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1983;3375- 82
PubMed
Lidegaard  O Decline in cerebral thromboembolism among young women after introduction of low-dose oral contraceptives: an incidence study for the period 1980-1993. Contraception. 1995;5285- 92
PubMed Link to Article
Lidegaard  O Oral contraceptives, pregnancy and the risk of cerebral thromboembolism: the influence of diabetes, hypertension, migraine and previous thrombotic disease. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1995;102153- 159
PubMed Link to Article
Porter  JBHunter  JRDanielson  DAJick  HStergachis  A Oral contraceptives and nonfatal vascular disease: recent experience. Obstet Gynecol. 1982;59299- 302
PubMed
Hillbom  MHaapaniemi  HJuvela  SPalomaki  HNumminen  HKaste  M Recent alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and cerebral infarction in young adults. Stroke. 1995;2640- 45
PubMed Link to Article
Vessey  MPLawless  MYeates  D Oral contraceptives and stroke: findings in a large prospective study. BMJ. 1984;289530- 531
PubMed Link to Article
Thorogood  MAdam  SAMann  J Fatal subarachnoid haemorrhage in young women: role of oral contraceptives. BMJ. 1981;283762
PubMed Link to Article
Marini  CCarolei  ARoberts  RS  et al. National Research Council Study Group, Focal cerebral ischemia in young adults. Neuroepidemiology. 1993;1270- 81
PubMed Link to Article
Lewis  MAAbmann  AHeinemann  LSpitzer  WO Interim review of the transnational case-control study of oral contraceptives and health: approved protocol revisions through September 1995. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 1996;543- 51
Link to Article
Not Available, A multinational case-control study of cardiovascular disease and steroid hormone contraceptives: description and validation of methods: World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular and Steroid Hormone Contraception. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995;481513- 1547
PubMed Link to Article
Shapiro  S Meta-analysis/shmeta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140771- 778
PubMed
Egger  MSchneider  MSmith  GD Meta-analysis: spurious precision? meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ. 1998;316140- 144
PubMed Link to Article
Pettiti  DB Of babies and bathwater. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140779- 782
PubMed
Greenland  S Can meta-analysis be salvaged? Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140783- 787
PubMed
Chalmers  TCSmith  HBlackburn  B  et al.  A method for assessing the quality of a randomized control trial. Control Clin Trials. 1981;231- 49
PubMed Link to Article
Hoyert  DLArias  ESmith  BL  et al.  Deaths: final data for 1999. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2001;491- 113
PubMed

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1

Retrieval of eligible studies.

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2

Funnel plot exploring publication bias: number of stroke cases in each case-control study (sample size) vs the natural logarithm of the odds ratio of stroke risk.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Eligible Articles Used for Data Abstraction
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Pooled Odds Ratios From Various Studies Using Different Criteria

References

Lorentz  IT Parietal lesion and Enovid [letter]. BMJ. 1962;21191
Link to Article
Inman  WHWVessey  MP Investigation of deaths from pulmonary, coronary, and cerebral thrombosis and embolism in women of childbearing age. BMJ. 1968;2193- 199
PubMed Link to Article
Vessey  MPDoll  R Investigation of the relation between use of oral contraceptives and thromboembolic disease. BMJ. 1968;2199- 205
PubMed Link to Article
Masi  ATDugdale  M Cerebrovascular disease associated with the use of oral contraceptives: a review of the English-language literature. Ann Intern Med. 1970;72111- 121
PubMed Link to Article
Borodistsky  RFisher  WSand  M The 1995 Canadian Contraceptive Study. J Soc Obstet Gynaecol Can. 1996;181- 31
The Canadian Consensus Conference on Contraception, Hormonal contraception. J Soc Obstet Gynaecol Can. 1998;73581- 598
Speroff  LDe Cherney  A An evaluation of a new generation of oral contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol. 1993;811034- 1047
PubMed
Schwartz  SMPettini  DBSiscovick  DS  et al.  Stroke and use of low-dose oral contraceptives in young women: a pooled analysis of two US studies. Stroke. 1998;292277- 2284
PubMed Link to Article
WHO Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception, Ischaemic stroke and combined oral contraceptives: results of an international, multicentre, case-control study. Lancet. 1996;348498- 505
PubMed Link to Article
Heinemann  LAJLewis  MAThorogood  MSpitzer  WOGuggenmoos-Holzmann  IBruppacher  R Case-control study of oral contraceptives and risk of thromboembolic stroke: results from International Study on Oral Contraceptives and Health of Young Women. BMJ. 1997;3151502- 1504
PubMed Link to Article
Gillum  LAMamidipudi  SKJohnston  SC Ischemic stroke risk with oral contraceptives: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2000;28472- 78
PubMed Link to Article
Petitti  DBSidney  SQuesenberry  CP  JrBernstein  A Incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction in women of reproduction age. Stroke. 1997;28280- 283
PubMed Link to Article
Fleiss  JL Combining evidence from fourfold tables. Fleiss  JLStatistical Methods for Rates and Proportions. 2nd ed. New York, NY John Wiley & Sons Inc1981;160- 187
Petitti  D Meta-analysis, Decision-analysis and Cost-effectiveness Analysis.  New York, NY Oxford University Press Inc1994;70- 86
WHO Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception, Haemorrhagic stroke, overall stroke risk, and combined oral contraceptives: results of an international, multicentre, case-control study. Lancet. 1996;348505- 510
PubMed Link to Article
Bonita  R Cigarette smoking, hypertension and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage: a population-based case-control study. Stroke. 1986;17831- 835
PubMed Link to Article
Thompson  SGGreenberg  GMeade  TW Risk factors for stroke and myocardial infarction in women in the United Kingdom as assessed in general practice: a case-control study. Br Heart J. 1989;61403- 409
PubMed Link to Article
Porter  JBJick  HWalker  AM Mortality among oral contraceptive users. Obstet Gynecol. 1987;7029- 32
PubMed
Chow  LPLin  CCKeyvan-Larijani  EChang  KK Oral contraceptives and mortality from circulatory system diseases: an epidemiologic study in Taiwan. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1983;21297- 304
PubMed Link to Article
Stampfer  MJWillett  WCColditz  GASpeizer  FEHennekens  CH A prospective study of past use of oral contraceptive agents and risk of cardiovascular diseases. N Engl J Med. 1988;3191313- 1317
PubMed Link to Article
Porter  JBHunter  JRJick  HStergachis  A Oral contraceptives and nonfatal vascular disease. Obstet Gynecol. 1985;661- 4
PubMed
Mant  JPainter  RVessey  M Risk of myocardial infarction, angina and stroke in users of oral contraceptives: an updated analysis of a cohort study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998;105890- 896
PubMed Link to Article
Hirvonen  EIdanpaan-Heikkila  J Cardiovascular death among women under 40 years of age using low-estrogen oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices in Finland from 1975 to 1984. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;163281- 284
PubMed Link to Article
Collaborative Group for the Study of Stroke in Young Women, Oral contraceptives and stroke. JAMA. 1975;231718- 722
PubMed Link to Article
Petitti  DBSidney  SBernstein  AWolf  SQuesenberry  CZiel  HK Stroke in users of low-dose oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med. 1996;3358- 15
PubMed Link to Article
Schwartz  SMSiscovick  DSLongstreth  WT  et al.  Use of low-dose oral contraceptives and stroke in young women. Ann Intern Med. 1997;127596- 603
PubMed Link to Article
Hannaford  PCCroft  PRKay  CR Oral contraception and stroke: evidence from the Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study. Stroke. 1994;25935- 942
PubMed Link to Article
Lidegaard  O Oral contraception and risk of a cerebral thromboembolic attack: results of a case-control study. BMJ. 1993;306956- 963
PubMed Link to Article
Chang  KKChow  LPRider  RV Oral contraceptives and stroke: a preliminary report on an epidemiologic study in Taiwan, China. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1986;24421- 430
Link to Article
Haapaniemi  HHillbom  MJuvela  S Lifestyle-associated risk factors for acute brain infarction among persons of working age. Stroke. 1997;2826- 30
PubMed Link to Article
Thorogood  MMann  JMurphy  MVessey  M Fatal stroke and use of oral contraceptives: findings from a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;13635- 45
PubMed
Inman  WHW Oral contraceptives and fatal subarachnoid haemorrhage. BMJ. 1979;21468- 1470
PubMed Link to Article
Oleckno  WA The risk of stroke in young adults: an analysis of the contribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Public Health. 1988;10245- 55
PubMed Link to Article
Jick  HPorter  JRothman  KJ Oral contraceptives and nonfatal stroke in healthy young women. Ann Intern Med. 1978;8958- 60
PubMed Link to Article
Mettinger  KLSoderstrom  CENeiman  J Stroke before 55 years of age at Karolinska Hospital 1973-77: a study of 399 well-defined cases. Acta Neurol Scand. 1984;70415- 422
PubMed Link to Article
Carolei  AMarini  CDe Matteis  Gfor the Italian National Research Council Study Group on Stroke in the Young, History of migraine and risk of cerebral ischemia in young adults. Lancet. 1996;3471502- 1506
PubMed Link to Article
Collaborative Group for the Study of Stroke in Young Women, Oral contraception and increased risk of cerebral ischemia or thrombosis. N Engl J Med. 1973;288871- 878
PubMed Link to Article
Heinemann  LAJLewis  MASpitzer  WO  et al.  Thromboembolic stroke in young women: a European case-control study on oral contraceptives. Contraception. 1998;5729- 37
PubMed Link to Article
Stampfer  MJWillett  WCColditz  GASpeizer  FEHennekens  CH Past use of oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis in the context of the Nurses' Health Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;163285- 291
PubMed Link to Article
Colditz  GA Oral contraceptive use and mortality during 12 years of follow-up: the Nurses' Health Study. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120821- 826
PubMed Link to Article
Petitti  DBSidney  SQuesenberry  CBernstein  A Incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction in women of reproductive age. Stroke. 1997;28280- 283
PubMed Link to Article
Petitti  DBWingerd  JPellegrin  FRamcharan  S Risk of vascular disease in women: smoking, oral contraceptives, noncontraceptive estrogens, and other factors. JAMA. 1979;2421150- 1154
PubMed Link to Article
Petitti  DBWingerd  J Use of oral contraceptives, cigarette smoking, and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Lancet. 1978;2234- 236
PubMed Link to Article
Longstreth  WTNelson  LMKoepsell  TDvan Belle  G Subarachnoid hemorrhage and hormonal factors in women: a population-based case-control study. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121168- 173
PubMed Link to Article
Layde  PMOry  HWBeral  VKay  CR Incidence of arterial disease among oral contraceptive users: Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1983;3375- 82
PubMed
Lidegaard  O Decline in cerebral thromboembolism among young women after introduction of low-dose oral contraceptives: an incidence study for the period 1980-1993. Contraception. 1995;5285- 92
PubMed Link to Article
Lidegaard  O Oral contraceptives, pregnancy and the risk of cerebral thromboembolism: the influence of diabetes, hypertension, migraine and previous thrombotic disease. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1995;102153- 159
PubMed Link to Article
Porter  JBHunter  JRDanielson  DAJick  HStergachis  A Oral contraceptives and nonfatal vascular disease: recent experience. Obstet Gynecol. 1982;59299- 302
PubMed
Hillbom  MHaapaniemi  HJuvela  SPalomaki  HNumminen  HKaste  M Recent alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and cerebral infarction in young adults. Stroke. 1995;2640- 45
PubMed Link to Article
Vessey  MPLawless  MYeates  D Oral contraceptives and stroke: findings in a large prospective study. BMJ. 1984;289530- 531
PubMed Link to Article
Thorogood  MAdam  SAMann  J Fatal subarachnoid haemorrhage in young women: role of oral contraceptives. BMJ. 1981;283762
PubMed Link to Article
Marini  CCarolei  ARoberts  RS  et al. National Research Council Study Group, Focal cerebral ischemia in young adults. Neuroepidemiology. 1993;1270- 81
PubMed Link to Article
Lewis  MAAbmann  AHeinemann  LSpitzer  WO Interim review of the transnational case-control study of oral contraceptives and health: approved protocol revisions through September 1995. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 1996;543- 51
Link to Article
Not Available, A multinational case-control study of cardiovascular disease and steroid hormone contraceptives: description and validation of methods: World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular and Steroid Hormone Contraception. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995;481513- 1547
PubMed Link to Article
Shapiro  S Meta-analysis/shmeta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140771- 778
PubMed
Egger  MSchneider  MSmith  GD Meta-analysis: spurious precision? meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ. 1998;316140- 144
PubMed Link to Article
Pettiti  DB Of babies and bathwater. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140779- 782
PubMed
Greenland  S Can meta-analysis be salvaged? Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140783- 787
PubMed
Chalmers  TCSmith  HBlackburn  B  et al.  A method for assessing the quality of a randomized control trial. Control Clin Trials. 1981;231- 49
PubMed Link to Article
Hoyert  DLArias  ESmith  BL  et al.  Deaths: final data for 1999. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2001;491- 113
PubMed

Correspondence

CME
Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 72

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles
[Migraine and stroke]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2014;54(12):1000-2.
[Migraine and contraception]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil 2015;43(3):234-41.
JAMAevidence.com

The Rational Clinical Examination: Evidence-Based Clinical Diagnosis
Original Article: Will This Patient Fall?

The Rational Clinical Examination: Evidence-Based Clinical Diagnosis
Results