We prepared a questionnaire based on the recommendations from the ACP for perioperative β-blocker use. An abstractor sheet was designed to record the captured data. Three of us (A.K.S., S.A., and H.D.) then recorded the data. A κ statistic was calculated to measure the degree of interobserver agreement. In addition to basic demographic characteristics, we included clinical variables to be assessed for perioperative β-blocker candidacy according to the ACP recommendations (age ≥65 years, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, current smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and CAD). Age was obtained from the face sheet of the medical chart. A patient was considered to have diabetes if stated in the chart or was using any medication for diabetes (eg, α-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and insulin). For hypertension, only a chart history qualified for the purpose of data abstraction; an incidental finding of hypertension during the hospitalization did not qualify. Smoking history data (only current) was obtained by review of historical notes. Chart diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia or statin drug therapy established this condition for the purpose of our study. Coronary artery disease was defined as a chart diagnosis of history of angina (stable or unstable), myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass, invasive coronary intervention, or atypical chest pain with a positive stress test result. Patients were considered to have an indication for perioperative β-blocker use if they had CAD as stated previously and/or 2 or more of the aforementioned risk factors (age ≥65 years, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and current smoking).