We excluded approximately 1% of participants from each study if they reported energy intakes greater or less than 3 SDs from the study-specific, log-transformed mean energy intake of the baseline population. Because the presence of clinical disease itself may cause dietary changes, we also excluded participants who reported a history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer (except nonmelanoma skin cancer) at baseline. Four studies (ARIC, FMC, GPS, and IWHS) with follow-up periods longer than 10 years were truncated to reduce heterogeneity in study duration. Within each cohort, relative risks (RRs) (incidence rate ratios) per fiber increment were computed using proportional hazards regression models with the PROC PHREG program of SAS statistical software, version 8.29 The RRs were adjusted for relevant baseline demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Categories of covariates were standardized across studies with a few exceptions, as follows. For disease history, information across studies included any or all of the following: self-reported disease, medication use, or biologic measures (eg, blood pressure and serum cholesterol level). For physical activity, information across studies ranged from simple categories of low, moderate, and high leisure-time activity to a continuous metabolic index of total physical activity, which was grouped into quintiles. Physical activity was unavailable for one study. Alcohol intake was unavailable for 2 studies. Three regression models were computed, as follows. Model 1 included age (in years), energy intake (in kilocalories per day), smoking status (never, past, or current smoker and dose [1-4, 5-14, 15-24, and ≥25 cigarettes per day]), body mass index (a measure of weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters, <23, 23-<25, 25-<27.5, 27.5-<30, or ≥30), physical activity (levels 1-5), education (<high school, high school, >high school), alcohol intake (0, <5, 5-<10, 10-<15, 15-<30, 30-<50, or ≥50 mL/d), multiple vitamin use (no, yes), hypercholesterolemia (no, yes), and hypertension (no, yes). Model 2 included covariates in model 1 and also energy-adjusted quintiles of dietary saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and cholesterol. Model 3 includes covariates in model 2 and also energy-adjusted quintiles of dietary and supplement sources of folic acid and vitamin E.