Vasculitis associated with helminthic infection is rare. We report a case of systemic negative antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies vasculitis associated with Toxocara canis infection documented by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis. This case report is unusual because of lymphocytic temporal arteritis and renal involvement. The spontaneous remission of systemic vasculitis without use of steroids or immunosuppressive agents favors a close relationship between vasculitis and the parasite that is more than a coincidental association. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of temporal vasculitis associated with helminthic infection, extending the clinical spectrum of visceral larva migrans.
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Temporal artery biopsy results showing pronounced mononuclear infiltration (arrow) in the adventitia and media (hematoxylin-eosin-saffron, original magnification ×100).
Temporal artery biopsy results, with lymphocytic infiltrate (arrow) in adventitia and media, and disruption of elastic internal lamina (arrow). Note the absence of macrophages and giant cells (hematoxylin-eosin-saffron, original magnification ×400).
CD3 immunohistochemical staining of mononuclear cell infiltrate of temporal artery biopsy specimens showing phenotypic T cells (arrow). Phenotypic B cells and macrophages were rare (not shown) (original magnification ×400).
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