Accepted for Publication: November 25, 2014.
Published Online: February 16, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.8263.
Study concept and design: Markovitz, Alexander, Paustian.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Markovitz, Lantz, Paustian.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Markovitz, Alexander, Paustian.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Paustian.
Study supervision: Alexander, Paustian.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Ms Markovitz and Dr Paustian were employed by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan during the time of this study. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Funding was received from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (grant R18 RFA-HS-10-002) for our foundational work on this topic. Ms Markovitz was supported by training grant T32HD060454 in Reproductive, Perinatal, and Pediatric Epidemiology from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Correction: This article was corrected on February 17, 2015, to fix an author’s affiliation.