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Special Article |

Executive Summary of the Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults

Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(17):1855-1867. doi:10.1001/archinte.158.17.1855.
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An estimated 97 million adults in the United States are overweight or obese, a condition that substantially raises their risk of morbidity from hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea and respiratory problems, and endometrial, breast, prostate, and colon cancers.1 Higher body weights are also associated with increases in all-cause mortality. Obese individuals may also suffer from social stigmatization and discrimination. As a major contributor to preventive death in the United States today, overweight and obesity pose a major public health challenge.

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Treatment algorithm. This algorithm applies only to the assessment of overweight and obesity and subsequent decisions based on that assessment. It does not include any initial overall assessment for cardiovascular risk factors or diseases that are indicated. Box 1: A patient encounter is defined as any interaction with a health care practitioner (generally a physician, nurse practitioner, or physician's assistant) that provides the opportunity to assess a patient's weight status and provide advice, counseling, or treatment. Box 2: The practitioner must seek to determine whether the patient has ever been overweight. While a technical definition is provided, a simple question such as "Have you ever been overweight?" will accomplish the same goal. Questions directed toward weight history, dietary habits, physical activities, and medications may provide useful information. Box 3: For those who have not been overweight, a 2-year interval is appropriate for the reassessment of body mass index (BMI). While this time span is not evidence-based, it is believed to be a reasonable compromise between the need to identify weight gain at an early stage and the need to limit the time, effort, and cost of repeated measurements. Box 4: Weight must be measured so that the BMI can be calculated. Most charts are based on weights obtained with the patient wearing undergarments and no shoes. BMI can be manually calculated (weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), but is more easily obtained from a nomogram. Waist circumference is important because evidence suggests that abdominal fat is a particularly strong determinant of cardiovascular risk in those with a BMI of 25 to 34.9. Increased waist circumference can also be a marker of increased risk even in persons of normal weight. A nutrition assessment will also help to assess the dietary and physical activity habits of overweight patients. Box 5: "BMI ≥25, or waist circumference >88 or >102 cm"—These cutoffs divide overweight from normal weight and are consistent with other national and international guidelines. The relation between weight and mortality is J-shaped, and evidence suggests that the right side of the "J" begins to rise at a BMI of 25. Waist circumference is incorporated as an "or" factor because some patients with BMI lower than 25 will have disproportionate abdominal fat, and this increases their cardiovascular risk despite their low BMI. These abdominal circumference values are not necessary for patients with a BMI of 35 or greater. Box 6: Risk assessment for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in a person with evident obesity will include special considerations for the history, physical examination, and laboratory examination. Of greatest urgency is the need to detect existing CVD or end-organ damage. Because the major risk of obesity is indirect (obesity elicits or aggravates hypertension, dyslipidemias, and diabetes, which cause cardiovascular complications), the management of obesity should be implemented in the context of these other risk factors. While there is no direct evidence demonstrating that addressing risk factors increases weight loss, treating the risk factors through weight loss is a recommended strategy. Box 7: "BMI ≥30, or ([BMI 25 to 29.9 or waist circumference >88 or >102 cm] and 2 or more risk factors)"—The panel recommends that all patients meeting these criteria attempt to lose weight. However, it is important to ask patients whether they want to lose weight. Those with BMIs between 25 and 29.9 who have 1 or no risk factors should work on maintaining their current weight rather than embark on a weight reduction program. Box 8: The decision to lose weight must be made jointly between the clinician and patient. Patient involvement and investment is crucial to success. The patient may choose not to lose weight but rather to prevent further weight gain as a goal. The panel recommends as an initial goal the loss of 10% of baseline weight, to be lost at a rate of 0.45 to 0.90 kg/wk, establishing an energy deficit of 2092 to 4184 kJ/d. For individuals who are overweight, a deficit of 1255 to 2092 kJ/d may be more appropriate, providing a weight loss of about 0.23 kg/wk. Also, there is evidence that an average of 8% of weight can be lost in a 6-month period. Since the observed average 8% weight loss includes people who do not lose weight, an individual goal of 10% is reasonable. After 6 months, most patients will equilibrate (energy intake balancing energy expenditure) and will require adjustment of energy balance if they are to lose more weight. The 3 major components of weight loss therapy are dietary therapy, increased physical activity, and behavior therapy. Lifestyle therapy should be tried for at least 6 months before considering pharmacotherapy. In addition, pharmacotherapy should be considered as an adjunct to lifestyle therapy in patients with a BMI of 30 or greater with no concomitant obesity-related risk factors or diseases, or for patients with a BMI of 27 or greater with concomitant obesity-related risk factors or diseases. The risk factors or diseases considered important enough to warrant pharmacotherapy at a BMI of 27 to 29.9 are hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease (CHD), type 2 diabetes, and sleep apnea. However, sibutramine should not be used in patients with a history of hypertension, CHD, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, or history of stroke. Certain patients may be candidates for weight loss surgery. Each component of weight loss therapy can be introduced briefly. The selection of weight loss methods should be made in the context of patient preferences, analysis of past failed attempts, and consideration of the available resources. Box 9: During the acute weight loss period and at 6-month and 1-year follow-up visits, the patients should be weighed, BMI calculated, and progress assessed. If at any time it appears that the program is failing, a reassessment should take place to determine the reasons (see box 10). If pharmacotherapy is being used, appropriate monitoring for adverse effects is recommended. If a patient can achieve the recommended 10% reduction in body weight in 6 months to 1 year, this change in weight can be considered good progress. The patient can then enter the phase of weight maintenance and long-term monitoring. It is important for the practitioner to recognize that some persons are more apt to lose or gain weight on a given regimen and that this phenomenon cannot always be attributed to degree of compliance. Once a limit of weight loss has been obtained, the practitioner is responsible for long-term monitoring of risk factors and for encouraging the patient to maintain a reduced weight level. Box 10: If a patient fails to achieve the recommended 10% reduction in body weight in 6 months or 1 year, a reevaluation is required. A critical question is whether the level of motivation is high enough to continue clinical therapy. If motivation is high, revise the goals and strategies (see box 8). If motivation is not high, clinical therapy should be discontinued, but the patient should be encouraged to embark on efforts to lose weight or to at least avoid further weight gain. Even if weight loss therapy is stopped, risk factor management must be continued. Failure to achieve weight loss should prompt the practitioner to investigate energy intake (dietary recall including alcohol intake, daily intake logs), energy expenditure (physical activity diary), attendance at behavior therapy group meetings, recent negative life events, family and societal pressures, or evidence of detrimental psychiatric problems (depression, binge eating disorder). If attempts to lose weight have failed, and the BMI is greater than 40, surgical therapy should be considered. Box 11: Evidence suggests that more than 80% of persons who lose weight will gradually regain it. Patients who continue on weight maintenance programs have a greater chance of keeping weight off. Maintenance consists of continued contact with the health care practitioner for continued education, support, and medical monitoring. Box 12: All patients who are overweight (BMI 25-29.9), or do not have a high waist circumference, and have few (0 to 1) cardiovascular risk factors and do not want to lose weight, should be counseled regarding the need to keep their weight at or below its present level. Patients who wish to lose weight should be guided per boxes 8 and 9. The justification for offering these overweight patients the option of maintaining (rather than losing) weight is that their health risk, while higher than that of persons with a BMI less than 25, is only moderately increased. Box 13: Those who have a history of overweight and are now at appropriate weight, and those who are overweight and not obese but wish to focus on maintenance of their current weight, should be provided with counseling and advice so that their weight does not increase. An increase in weight increases their health risk and should be prevented. The physician should actively promote prevention strategies. For addressing other risk factors, see box 6, because even if weight loss cannot be addressed, other risk factors should be covered. Box 14: This box differentiates those who are not overweight now and never have been from those with a history of overweight; see box 2. Box 15: Those who are not overweight and never have been should be advised of the importance of staying in this category. Box 16: Patients should receive periodic monitoring of their weight, BMI, and waist circumference. Patients who are not overweight or have no history of overweight should be screened for weight gain every 2 years. This time span is a reasonable compromise between the need to identify weight gain at an early stage and the need to limit the time, effort, and the cost of repeated measurements.

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