Other risk factors assessed at baseline that were used in the analyses were age; number of medical conditions from a self-reported history of having been told by a physician or other health care provider that they had cancer, diabetes, heart attack, or stroke; low mental status score (≥3 errors on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire)25; physical disability, determined using measures of mobility and activities of daily living (ADL): no disability, mobility disability (report of the need for help with walking mile (0.8 km), climbing a flight of stairs, or doing heavy housework, but no limitations in ADL), and ADL disability (report of the need for help with ≥1 ADL that included bathing, dressing, eating, walking across a room, and transferring from bed to chair). Physical activity level was measured using 3 items concerning the frequency of walking, gardening, and doing vigorous exercise.26 For each activity, subjects were classified into 3 categories: frequently (≥3 times per week), sometimes (twice weekly, weekly, or several times per month), and rarely or never. For the multivariable analysis, a value of 3 was assigned when the activity was performed frequently, 2 when the activity was performed sometimes, and 1 when the activity was performed rarely or never. The scores for each activity were summed to create a total score for physical activity and categorized into 3 groups based on the distribution of scores: low physical activity level (score, 3-5), moderate (score, 6), and high (score, 7-9). Other behavioral variables included cigarette smoking (current, former, or never); use of alcohol (none or any consumed in the past year); and use of thiazide diuretics (current or none). Data about disability, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol were missing for fewer than 2%, mental status score data were missing for 8.0%, and use of thiazide diuretics data were missing for 15.8% of the men in our study.