Accepted for Publication: October 17, 2014.
Published Online: December 29, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.6888.
Study concept and design: Berkowitz, Meigs, Seligman, Wexler.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Berkowitz, Barnard, Bright, Wexler.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Meigs, DeWalt, Seligman, Bright, Schow, Atlas, Wexler.
Statistical analysis: Berkowitz, Meigs, Wexler.
Obtained funding: Berkowitz, Wexler.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Meigs, Barnard, Bright, Schow, Atlas, Wexler.
Study supervision: Berkowitz, Meigs, Seligman, Atlas, Wexler.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by Institutional National Research Service award T32HP10251 (Dr Berkowitz), by the Ryoichi Sasakawa Fellowship Fund (Dr Berkowitz), by the Division of General Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital (Dr Berkowitz), by awards R03DK090196-01A1 and U01DK098246 from the National Institutes of Health (Dr Wexler), and in part by award K24DK080140 from the National Institutes of Health (Dr Meigs).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This paper was presented at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for General Internal Medicine; April 24, 2014; San Diego, California.
Additional Contributions: Children’s HealthWatch made housing and energy insecurity items available. Emma Wise, BA, Tufts University Community Health program, Boston, Massachusetts, and Sarah Ackroyd, MPH, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, assisted with data collection, for which they were not compensated.