Published Online: December 8, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.6520.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Hwang, Turner, Kolodny, Alexander.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hwang, Turner, Kolodny, Alexander.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hwang, Kruszewski, Kolodny, Alexander.
Statistical analysis: Hwang, Kolodny.
Obtained funding: Turner, Alexander.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Turner, Kruszewski, Alexander.
Study supervision: Turner, Alexander.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Ms Hwang is a current ORISE Fellow at the Food and Drug Administration. Dr Kruszewski has served as a general and case-specific expert for multiple plaintiff litigations involving OxyContin, Neurontin, and Zyprexa and has had false claims settled as coplaintiff with the United States against Southwood Psychiatric Hospital, Pfizer (Geodon), and AstraZeneca (Seroquel). Dr Kolodny is employed by the Phoenix House and is President of Physicians for Responsible Opioid Prescribing. Dr Alexander is Chair of the Food and Drug Administration’s Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee, serves as a paid consultant to IMS Health, and serves on an IMS Health scientific advisory board. This arrangement has been reviewed and approved by Johns Hopkins University in accordance with its conflict of interest policies. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Public Health Law Research Program and the Lipitz Public Health Policy Fund Award from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Role of the Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Kenneth Rasinski, PhD, Joint Commission, provided helpful input on survey development, fielding, and analysis. He was not compensated for his contribution.