Accepted for Publication: August 17, 2014.
Published Online: October 27, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.5430.
Study concept and design: Lindenauer, Stefan, Pekow, Rothberg, Hill.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Lindenauer, Stefan, Shieh, Pekow, Hill.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lindenauer, Stefan, Hill.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Lindenauer, Shieh, Pekow, Rothberg, Hill.
Statistical analysis: Stefan, Shieh, Pekow, Hill.
Obtained funding: Lindenauer, Hill.
Study supervision: Lindenauer, Pekow.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grant 1R18HL108810-01 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The NIH had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.