Published Online: October 27, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.5413.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Yokell, Delgado, Zaller, McGowan, Green.
Drafting of the manuscript: Yokell, Zaller, McGowan, Green.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Yokell, Green.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Wang, Green.
Study supervision: Delgado, Zaller, Wang.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Green reports employment in the past year at Inflexxion Inc, a small business that conducts postmarketing surveillance for scheduled medications. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by Stanford University School of Medicine (Mr Yokell and Dr Wang); by grant R21 CE002165-01 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (Dr Green); by grant UL1 RR025744 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Center for Research Resources, and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (Dr Delgado); and by grant 5K12HL109009 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Dr Delgado).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. In addition, Inflexxion Inc had no role in the data analysis, interpretation of the findings, or decision to publish this research.
Disclaimer: The content of this study is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not represent the official views of the CDC, NIH, or Stanford University.
Previous Presentations: This study was presented at the American College of Emergency Physicians Scientific Forum; October 16, 2013; Seattle, Washington; and at the Panel on Integrating Public Health and Health Care Delivery, AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting; June 10, 2014; San Diego, California.