Published Online: September 8, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4344.
Study concept and design: Smith, Weiss, Waterer, Wunderink.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Smith, Ruhnke, Waterer, Wunderink.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Smith, Ruhnke.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Wunderink.
Study supervision: Ruhnke, Weiss, Waterer, Wunderink.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Smith is supported by National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute training grant T32HL076139. Dr Weiss is supported by National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute grant K23HL118139 and a grant from the Parker B. Francis Fellowship Program. Dr Wunderink is supported in part by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention grant 1U18IP000490.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: A preliminary version of this work was presented as a poster at the American Thoracic Society International Conference; May 19, 2013; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.