Accepted for Publication: June 3, 2014.
Published Online: September 1, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.3337.
Study concept and design: Sirovich, Lipner, Holmboe.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Sirovich.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Sirovich, Lipner, Johnston.
Obtained funding: Sirovich.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lipner.
Study supervision: Lipner.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the National Institute on Aging grant PO1 AG19783. Dr Sirovich was supported by a Veterans Affairs Career Development Award in Health Services Research and Development at the time this work was initiated.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institute on Aging had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States government.
Previous Presentations: A report of this study using earlier data was presented at the Society of General Internal Medicine Annual Meeting; April 29, 2006; Los Angeles, California,
Additional Contributions: The authors gratefully acknowledge the capable assistance of Nancy Rohowyj, BA, of the American Board of Internal Medicine, the thoughtful and wise counsel of Jason Rinaldo, PhD, of the American Board of Family Medicine, and the insistent encouragement and inspiration of Jon Skinner, PhD, of the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice.
Additional Information: All ABIM certifying examination data were processed within ABIM, primarily by Mary Johnston, and subsequently provided to Dr Sirovich, who conducted all analyses.