Accepted for Publication: May 2, 2014.
Published Online: August 25, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4005.
Study concept and design: Bachhuber, Saloner, Barry.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Bachhuber, Cunningham, Barry.
Drafting of the manuscript: Bachhuber, Saloner.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Bachhuber, Saloner, Barry.
Study supervision: Cunningham, Barry.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Cunningham’s husband was recently employed by Pfizer Pharmaceuticals and is currently employed by Quest Diagnostics. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: This work was funded by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants R01DA032110 and R25DA023021 and the Center for AIDS Research at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine andMontefiore Medical Center grant NIH AI-51519. Dr Saloner received funding support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health and Society Scholars Program. Dr Bachhuber received funding support from the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions of this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government.
Corrections: This article was corrected on August 27, 2014, to fix a typographical error in Figure 1 and on September 10, 2014, to fix an incorrect term in the Discussion.