Accepted for Publication: June 6, 2014.
Published Online: August 18, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.3384.
Study concept and design: Flanders, Greene, Paje, Lee, Barron, Share, Bernstein.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Flanders, Greene, Grant, Kaatz, Paje, Barron, Chopra, Bernstein.
Drafting of the manuscript: Flanders, Greene, Lee, Barron, Chopra.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Greene, Barron, Chopra.
Obtained funding: Flanders, Share.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Flanders, Paje, Lee, Barron, Share, Bernstein.
Study supervision: Flanders, Grant, Bernstein.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Flanders reports receiving compensation for consultancies for the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and the Society of Hospital Medicine; royalties from Wiley Publishing; honoraria for various talks at hospitals as a visiting professor; grants from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Foundation, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, Michigan Health and Hospital Association, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; and compensation for expert witness testimony. Dr Chopra reports receiving grant support from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan. Dr Grant reports receiving royalties from Wiley Publishing and compensation for expert witness testimony. Dr Kaatz reports receiving compensation for consultancies for Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi Sankyo, Janssen, and Bristol-Meyers Squibb. Dr Paje reports receiving compensation for a consultancy for Rush University Medical Center. Dr Barron reports receiving support for travel for this study from Spectrum Health Hospital. Dr Bernstein reports receiving compensation as a consultant for Blue Care Network and the Michigan Department of Community Health, honoraria for various talks, and grants from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, Michigan Health and Hospital Association, Department of Veterans Affairs, National Institutes of Health, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported through funding from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan supported data collection at each participating site and funded the data coordinating center but had no role in study concept, interpretation of findings, or preparation, review, or final approval of the manuscript.
Previous Presentations: The general overview and results of this study were presented at the Society of General Internal Medicine Annual Meeting; April 26, 2013; Denver, Colorado; and Society of Hospital Medicine Annual Meeting; May 17, 2013; National Harbor, Maryland.
Additional Contributions: Andrew Hickner, MSI, and Latoya Kuhn, MPH, proofread the manuscript and assisted with the submission process.