Accepted for Publication: June 2, 2014.
Published Online: August 4, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.3376.
Study concept and design: Chen, Birkmeyer, Banerjee.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Chen, Thumma, Birkmeyer.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Chen, Wilk, Birkmeyer, Banerjee.
Statistical analysis: Chen, Wilk, Thumma, Banerjee.
Obtained funding: Chen, Birkmeyer.
Study supervision: Banerjee.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: John Birkmeyer has equity interest in ArborMetrix, a company that profiles hospital quality and episode cost efficiency. The company played no role in the manuscript.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by funding from the National Institute of Aging (grant No. P01AG019783-0751 to Dr Birkmeyer and Jonathan Skinner). It was also supported with funding from a University of Michigan MCubed grant. Dr Chen is supported by a Career Development Grant Award (K08HS020671) from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Edward C. Norton, PhD, provided comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. Natalie J. Lin, BA, provided research assistance and received financial compensation for her work.