Accepted for Publication: April 24, 2014.
Published Online: July 28, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.3404.
Study concept and design: Ross, Frazee, Novshadian, Stettin, Krumholz.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ross, Frazee, Garavaglia, Levin, Novshadian, Stettin.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Garavaglia, Levin, Novshadian.
Obtained funding: Stettin.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Frazee, Garavaglia, Novshadian.
Study supervision: Frazee, Garavaglia, Levin, Novshadian, Stettin, Krumholz.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Drs Ross and Krumholz receive support from Medtronic, Johnson and Johnson, and the Food and Drug Administration to develop methods to enhance postmarket surveillance of medical devices and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to develop and maintain performance measures that are used for public reporting. Dr Ross is supported by the National Institute on Aging (grant K08 AG032886) and by the American Federation for Aging Research through the Paul B. Beeson Career Development Award Program. Dr Krumholz is supported by a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Cardiovascular Outcomes Center Award (1U01HL105270-04). Dr Ross is a member of a scientific advisory board for FAIR Health. Dr Krumholz chairs a scientific advisory board for UnitedHealthcare. No other disclosures are reported.
Disclaimer: The authors assume full responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the ideas presented.
Additional Contributions: Seth Goldfarb, MS, Express Scripts, provided assistance with statistical programming and analysis. He provided this assistance in his role as an employee of Express Scripts but was not additionally compensated for his contribution.