Accepted for Publication: May 8, 2014.
Published Online: July 14, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.3028.
Study concept and design: Lu-Yao, Albertsen, Yao.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lu-Yao, Albertsen, Moore, Shih, Yao.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Albertsen, Lin, DiPaola, Yao.
Statistical analysis: Lu-Yao, Albertsen, Moore, Shih, Lin.
Obtained funding: Lu-Yao.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lu-Yao, Lin, DiPaola, Yao.
Study supervision: Lu-Yao, Albertsen, Moore, Shih, DiPaola, Yao.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: During the past 5 years, Dr Lu-Yao has received a consulting fee from the Merck Research Laboratory, Dr Shih has received clinical research funding from Myriad, and Dr Yao has been employed by Schering-Plough and Merck in the area of clinical cancer research.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by National Cancer Institute (NCI) grant No. R01 CA116399 and in part by Cancer Institute of New Jersey core grant NCI CA-72720-10.
Role of the Sponsor: The NCI not play any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The performance and design of this study were reviewed and approved by both the NCI and Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
Disclaimer: This study used the Linked SEER-Medicare Database. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors. The content of the information does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the US Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred.
Additional Contributions: The authors acknowledge the efforts of the Applied Research Branch, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Science, NCI; the Office of Information Services, and the Office of Strategic Planning, Health Care Financing Administration; Information Management Services Inc; and the SEER Program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database. Shunhua Shen, MS, updated the data and provided modifications to this publication. She was paid by Rutgers Cancer institute of New Jersey Population Science while working on this study and is now affiliated with Smith Hanley Consulting.