Accepted for Publication: April 13, 2014.
Published Online: July 14, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.3021.
Study concept and design: Hoffman, Buchholz, B. D. Smith.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Hoffman, Niu, Shen, Jiang, Davis, Kim, Kuban, Perkins, Shah, G. L. Smith, Volk, Giordano, B. D. Smith.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hoffman, Shen, Jiang, Perkins, B. D. Smith.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hoffman, Niu, Shen, Davis, Kim, Kuban, Perkins, Shah, G. L. Smith, Volk, Buchholz, Giordano, B. D. Smith.
Statistical analysis: Hoffman, Niu, Shen, Jiang, Perkins, B. D. Smith.
Obtained funding: B. D. Smith.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Davis, Perkins, Giordano, B. D. Smith.
Study supervision: Kim, Kuban, Shah, Buchholz, Giordano, B. D. Smith.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr B. D. Smith receives research support from Varian Medical Systems. Dr Hoffman receives research support from the American Society for Radiation Oncology. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants from the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (RP101207), the National Cancer Institute (T32CA77050, CA 079466), the American Cancer Society (RSGI-09-149-01-CPHPS), the Duncan Family Institute, and The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, McCombs Institute, Center for Radiation Oncology Research. It was also supported by the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute under award P30CA016672 and used the Biostatistics Shared Resource.
Role of the Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: This study used the linked SEER-Medicare database. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors.
Additional Contributions: The authors acknowledge the efforts of the Applied Research Program, National Cancer Institute; the Office of Research, Development and Information, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; Information Management Services, Inc; and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database. Stephanie Deming, BA, MD Anderson Cancer Center, provided editorial expertise during the preparation of the manuscript. She was not compensated for her contribution.