Accepted for Publication: March 12, 2014.
Published Online: April 24, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.1927.
Study concept and design: Sugiyama, Tsugawa, Shapiro.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Sugiyama, Tsugawa, Tseng, Kobayashi, Shapiro.
Drafting of the manuscript: Sugiyama, Tsugawa.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Tsugawa, Tseng, Kobayashi, Shapiro.
Statistical analysis: Sugiyama, Tsugawa, Tseng.
Obtained funding: Sugiyama.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Sugiyama, Kobayashi.
Study supervision: Tsugawa, Kobayashi, Shapiro.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported in part by the National Center for Global Health and Medicine (Sugiyama), the Honjo International Scholarship Foundation (Sugiyama and Tsugawa), and National Institutes of Health grants UL1TR000124 and P20MD000182 (Tseng and Shapiro).
Role of the Sponsors: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Neil S. Wenger, MD, MPH, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, for his comments on study design, and Masako Horino, RD, Department of Community Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, for her comments on grammatical issues. No compensation was given for these contributions.
Previous Presentation: This research was presented at the Society of General Internal Medicine Meeting; April 24, 2014; San Diego, California.