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Case Report/Case Series |

Liraglutide-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis FREE

Emily Kern, MD1; Lisa B. VanWagner, MD, MS2; Guang-Yu Yang, MD, PhD3; Mary E. Rinella, MD2
[+] Author Affiliations
1Department of Internal Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois
2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois
3Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois
JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(6):984-987. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.674.
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Published online

Importance  Use of incretin-based hypoglycemic agents is increasing, but safety data remain limited. We treated a woman with marker-negative autoimmune hepatitis associated with the glucagon-like peptide 1 agonist liraglutide.

Observations  A young woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus and vitiligo presented with a 10-day history of acute hepatitis. Other than starting liraglutide therapy 4 months prior, she reported no changes in medication therapy and no use of supplements. At admission, aspartate aminotransferase level was 991 U/L; alanine aminotransferase level, 1123 U/L; total bilirubin level, 9.5 mg/dL; and international normalized ratio, 1.3. Results of a liver biopsy demonstrated interface hepatitis with prominent eosinophils and rare plasma cells. The patient’s liraglutide therapy was withheld at discharge but her symptoms worsened. A second biopsy specimen revealed massive hepatic necrosis. She started oral prednisone therapy for presumed liraglutide-induced marker-negative autoimmune hepatitis.

Conclusions and Relevance  This case represents, to our knowledge, the first report of liraglutide-induced autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatotoxicity may be an incretin analogue class effect with a long latency period. This case raises prescriber awareness about the potential adverse effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists. Postmarketing studies are needed to define the hepatotoxic potential of these agents.

Figures in this Article

The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the United States is increasing rapidly.1 Eleven unique drug classes have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for type 2 diabetes mellitus.1 Incretin-based hypoglycemic agents, including the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists and the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, have recently received considerable press. The US Food and Drug Administration released a statement heightening provider awareness of potential adverse events after data linking these drugs to an increased risk for pancreatic cancer surfaced.2 Despite these warnings, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists guidelines3 recommend the use of incretin mimetic drugs early in the process of intensifying glycemic control.

Incretin-based hypoglycemic agents have also been implicated in cases of hepatotoxic effects.4,5 Identifying drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is challenging, because cases are rare and can have variable presentations, including hepatic steatosis, acute liver failure, hepatic necrosis, cholestatic hepatitis, and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH).6 A drug’s hepatotoxic potential is often recognized only after approval by the US Food and Drug Administration.6 We present the first case, to our knowledge, of drug-induced marker-negative AIH associated with liraglutide (Victoza; Novo Nordisk), a GLP-1 agonist approved in 2010 for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

A young Hispanic woman with a medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and vitiligo presented with nausea, emesis, and acute hepatitis of 10 days’ duration. Other than switching drug therapy from exenatide, 10 µg twice daily, to liraglutide, 1.2 mg/d, 4 months before presentation, the patient reported no changes in medication use or use of herbal supplements or acetaminophen. For the last 3 years she had taken metformin hydrochloride, 500 mg twice daily, and used topical tacrolimus ointment, 0.1%, for her vitiligo. Her social history was unremarkable other than recent travel to the southern United States. Physical examination findings included mild scleral icterus but no evidence of advanced liver disease, abdominal tenderness, or altered mentation. Admission laboratory data were as follows: aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level, 991 U/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, 1123 U/L (to convert AST and ALT to microkatals per liter, multiply by 0.0167); total/direct bilirubin levels, 9.5/6.2 mg/dL (to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 17.104); alkaline phosphatase level, 90 U/L (to convert to microkatals per liter, multiply by 0.0167); platelet count, 224 × 103/μL (to convert to 109 per liter, multiply by 1.0); and international normalized ratio, 1.3. Doppler ultrasonography of the liver showed increased echogenicity around the portal triads but no biliary ductal dilatation. Results of an extensive virologic workup, including tests for hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E virus; Epstein-Barr virus; cytomegalovirus; and herpes simplex virus, were unremarkable. In initial autoimmune studies, levels of antinuclear antibody, antimitochondrial antibody, anti–smooth muscle antibody, and quantitative immunoglobulins were not significantly elevated. Results of metabolic studies, including levels of thyrotropin, acetaminophen, and salicylate, were also within reference limits.

The patient underwent liver biopsy, results of which demonstrated interface hepatitis with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate, prominent intra-acinar eosinophils, canalicular cholestasis, and rare plasma cells (Figure 1). Her symptoms improved with antiemetic therapy and intravenous fluids, and at discharge she was given metformin and insulin. The working differential diagnosis at time of discharge included resolving DILI, marker-negative AIH, or a self-limited viral infection.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.
Results of the First Liver Biopsy

Portal and interface inflammation with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes, occasional plasma cells (black arrowheads), and prominent eosinophils (yellow arrowheads) are seen (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×40). Inset is of the boxed area in the larger slide (original magnification ×200).

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Nine days after discharge, the patient noted worsening jaundice and fatigue. Her AST levels were 492 U/L; ALT levels, 525 U/L; total bilirubin level, 12.8 mg/dL; alkaline phosphatase level, 90 U/L; and international normalized ratio, 1.3. Results of additional studies at that time, including measurement of α1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin, and 24-hour urine copper levels and repeated analysis of viral hepatitis serologic markers, were unremarkable. Her symptoms persisted, and 1 month after her initial presentation, she was readmitted. On admission, the AST level was 1045 U/L; ALT level, 994 U/L; total bilirubin level, 9.1 mg/dL; alkaline phosphatase level, 118 U/L; and international normalized ratio, 1.1. Studies for the presence of anti–liver-kidney-microsome-1 and F-actin antibodies returned negative results. Findings of a second liver biopsy showed massive hepatic necrosis and an extensive eosinophilic infiltrate (Figure 2). With the biopsy results pending, the patient started oral prednisone therapy, 40 mg/d, for presumed liraglutide-induced marker-negative AIH. She started a prolonged course of the corticosteroid therapy, given initial improvement in her hepatic enzyme levels and symptoms. At present (6 months later), the patient continues to receive prednisone, 15 mg/d, without complete return of enzyme levels to the reference range (Figure 3). She will continue this slow therapy taper and may require a corticosteroid-sparing agent if she has a biochemical relapse.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.
Results of the Second Liver Biopsy

Lobular necrosis and portal and interface inflammation with predominant lymphocytes and scattered eosinophils (yellow arrowheads) are seen (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×200). Inset is taken from a portion of the biopsy not captured on the larger slide (original magnification ×400).

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Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 3.
Trend in Liver Function Test Results During the Course of the Patient’s Disease

Results over time for the patient’s alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels (A) and the bilirubin level (B). The upper limit of the reference range for the ALT level is 52 U/L; for AST, 39 U/L. To convert AST and ALT to microkatals per liter, multiply by 0.0167; bilirubin to micromoles per liter, multiply by 17.104.

Graphic Jump Location

The constellation of findings from this patient’s history and the evolution of laboratory test and liver biopsy results suggest that marker-negative AIH secondary to the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide was the most probable diagnosis. Drug-induced immune-mediated liver injury occurs when the immune system mounts a response against hepatic proteins, causing a clinical syndrome of AIH. Approximately 9% of AIH cases are drug induced.7 The exact trigger for drug-induced AIH is unknown, but several potential mechanisms exist. Drugs or their metabolites may bind to liver proteins, forming drug-protein products that trigger an immunologic response.6 Drug-induced AIH is most common with drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzymes, although it can occur whenever drug-protein complexes are formed.6,8

The clinical presentation of drug-induced AIH is similar to that of classic AIH. More than half of the patients are female and 80% are younger than 65 years.9 Approximately 20% to 40% of drug-induced AIH cases lack typical serologic markers, and high-acuity cases may have serum γ-globulin levels within reference ranges.10 Liver tissue examination is essential for the diagnosis of AIH because results demonstrate the histologic hallmark of a lymphoplasmacytic periportal infiltrate invading the limiting plate, referred to as interface hepatitis.10 A drug-related cause should be suspected when eosinophils are a prominent feature of the inflammatory infiltrate, although previous studies11,12 suggest that the presence of eosinophils may not reliably distinguish DILI from AIH. Treatment of drug-induced AIH depends on the disease severity.8 Patients with asymptomatic or mild cases can discontinue therapy with the offending agent and undergo close monitoring, whereas those with more severe disease require corticosteroid therapy.7,8 Histologic improvement lags behind clinical and laboratory resolution by 3 to 8 months; thus, therapy should be continued for at least 6 months beyond the time clinical and laboratory findings normalize.8 If corticosteroid therapy cannot be tapered, or if patients relapse after corticosteroid therapy withdrawal, then they are treated as having classic AIH and receive corticosteroids in combination with a corticosteroid-sparing agent such as azathioprine.8

To our knowledge, this patient constitutes the first reported case of hepatotoxic effects associated with the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide. Approximately 363 000 patients have started liraglutide therapy since its approval in 2010 (Tor Constantino, MBA, written communication, February 25, 2014). Other incretin-based hypoglycemic agents, by contrast, have been implicated in cases of hepatotoxic effects. Trials of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor currently approved by the European Medicines Agency, have reported hepatic dysfunction and hepatitis.4 The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin phosphate has also been linked to a case of DILI.5 We speculate that liraglutide triggers immune-mediated liver injury owing to the formation of antiliraglutide antibodies. Liraglutide is a recombinant peptide that is 97% homologous with human GLP-1.13 Approximately 8% of patients will form antiliraglutide antibodies, and more than half of these antibodies cross-react with native GLP-1, which has receptors on human hepatocytes.13 The interaction between the antiliraglutide antibody and native GLP-1 at the site of its hepatocyte receptor may form a neoantigen against which the immune system reacts, causing an AIH syndrome. This mechanism is speculative, and antiliraglutide antibody levels were not measured in our patient. Further studies are needed to explore this potential pathway of injury.

Our case report strongly implicates liraglutide in the etiology of the patient’s marker-negative AIH, although a causal relationship cannot be firmly established. A number of scoring systems exist to help clinicians categorize acute liver injury. The Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is used to define DILI,14 and the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group scoring system is used to identify AIH.15 Based on her presentation, our patient would have a “probable” autoimmune cause15 and a “possible” drug contribution to her presentation.14 The patient did not undergo drug rechallenge, results of which would strengthen the association between liraglutide and the patient’s liver injury.

This case study reports the first known instance of liraglutide-induced hepatotoxicity and suggests that liver injury may occur with a long latency period. The patient’s presentation also illustrates the complexity of distinguishing drug-induced AIH from other entities such as acute classic AIH, marker-negative AIH, and other forms of DILI. Larger postmarketing studies are needed to better define the hepatotoxic potential of GLP-1 agonists.

Accepted for Publication: January 24, 2014.

Corresponding Author: Mary E. Rinella, MD, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 675 N St Clair St, Galter Ste 17-250, Chicago, IL 60611 (mrinella@nmff.org).

Published Online: April 14, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.674.

Author Contributions: Dr Rinella had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Study concept and design: Kern, VanWagner, Rinella.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Kern, VanWagner, Yang.

Drafting of the manuscript: Kern, VanWagner.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

Obtained funding: VanWagner.

Administrative, technical, or material support: VanWagner, Yang, Rinella.

Study supervision: VanWagner, Rinella.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant 1 F32 HL116151-01 from the National Institutes of Health and by a postdoctoral research fellowship award from the American Liver Foundation (Dr VanWagner).

Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Previous Presentation: This paper was presented in poster format at the 78th Annual Meeting of the College of Gastroenterology; October 14, 2013; San Diego, California.

Qaseem  A, Humphrey  LL, Sweet  DE, Starkey  M, Shekelle  P; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians.  Oral pharmacologic treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(3):218-231.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA investigating reports of possible increased risk of pancreatitis and pre-cancerous findings of the pancreas from incretin mimetic drugs for type 2 diabetes. March 14, 2013. http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/ucm343187.htm. Accessed October 21, 2013.
Garber  AJ, Abrahamson  MJ, Barzilay  JI,  et al; American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.  AACE comprehensive diabetes management algorithm 2013 . Endocr Prac.2013;19(2):327-336.
PubMed
Novartis Euroharm Ltd. Galvus: summary of product characteristics (SmPC) for the European Union. 2013. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_information/human/000771/WC500020327.pdf. Accessed July 20, 2013.
Toyoda-Akui  M, Yokomori  H, Kaneko  F,  et al.  A case of drug-induced hepatic injury associated with sitagliptin. Intern Med. 2011;50(9):1015-1020.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Tujios  S, Fontana  RJ.  Mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury: from bedside to bench . Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;8(4):202-211.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Björnsson  E, Talwalkar  J, Treeprasertsuk  S,  et al.  Drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis: clinical characteristics and prognosis. Hepatology. 2010;51(6):2040-2048.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Czaja  AJ.  Drug-induced autoimmune-like hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56(4):958-976.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Chalasani  N, Fontana  RJ, Bonkovsky  HL,  et al; Drug Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN).  Causes, clinical features, and outcomes from a prospective study of drug-induced liver injury in the United States. Gastroenterology.2008;135(6):1924-1934.e1-e4. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2008.09.011.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Fujiwara  K, Fukuda  Y, Yokosuka  O.  Precise histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimen is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment of acute-onset autoimmune hepatitis. J Gastroenterol. 2008;43(12):951-958.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Pham  BN, Bemuau  J, Durand  F,  et al.  Eotaxin expression and eosinophil infiltrate in the liver of patients with drug-induced liver disease. J Hepatol. 2001;34(4):537-547.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Suzuki  A, Brunt  EM, Kleiner  DE,  et al.  The use of liver biopsy evaluation in discrimination of idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis versus drug-induced liver injury. Hepatology. 2011;54(3):931-939.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Buse  JB, Garber  A, Rosenstock  J,  et al.  Liraglutide treatment is associated with a low frequency and magnitude of antibody formation with no apparent impact on glycemic response or increased frequency of adverse events: results from the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes (LEAD) trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(6):1695-1702.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Danan  G, Benichou  C.  Causality assessment of adverse reactions to drugs, I: a novel method based on the conclusions of international consensus meetings: application to drug-induced liver injuries. J Clin Epidemiol. 1993;46(11):1323-1330.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Czaja  AJ.  Autoantibody-negative autoimmune hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57(3):610-624.
PubMed   |  Link to Article

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.
Results of the First Liver Biopsy

Portal and interface inflammation with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes, occasional plasma cells (black arrowheads), and prominent eosinophils (yellow arrowheads) are seen (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×40). Inset is of the boxed area in the larger slide (original magnification ×200).

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.
Results of the Second Liver Biopsy

Lobular necrosis and portal and interface inflammation with predominant lymphocytes and scattered eosinophils (yellow arrowheads) are seen (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×200). Inset is taken from a portion of the biopsy not captured on the larger slide (original magnification ×400).

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 3.
Trend in Liver Function Test Results During the Course of the Patient’s Disease

Results over time for the patient’s alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels (A) and the bilirubin level (B). The upper limit of the reference range for the ALT level is 52 U/L; for AST, 39 U/L. To convert AST and ALT to microkatals per liter, multiply by 0.0167; bilirubin to micromoles per liter, multiply by 17.104.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

References

Qaseem  A, Humphrey  LL, Sweet  DE, Starkey  M, Shekelle  P; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians.  Oral pharmacologic treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(3):218-231.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA investigating reports of possible increased risk of pancreatitis and pre-cancerous findings of the pancreas from incretin mimetic drugs for type 2 diabetes. March 14, 2013. http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/ucm343187.htm. Accessed October 21, 2013.
Garber  AJ, Abrahamson  MJ, Barzilay  JI,  et al; American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.  AACE comprehensive diabetes management algorithm 2013 . Endocr Prac.2013;19(2):327-336.
PubMed
Novartis Euroharm Ltd. Galvus: summary of product characteristics (SmPC) for the European Union. 2013. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_information/human/000771/WC500020327.pdf. Accessed July 20, 2013.
Toyoda-Akui  M, Yokomori  H, Kaneko  F,  et al.  A case of drug-induced hepatic injury associated with sitagliptin. Intern Med. 2011;50(9):1015-1020.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Tujios  S, Fontana  RJ.  Mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury: from bedside to bench . Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;8(4):202-211.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Björnsson  E, Talwalkar  J, Treeprasertsuk  S,  et al.  Drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis: clinical characteristics and prognosis. Hepatology. 2010;51(6):2040-2048.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Czaja  AJ.  Drug-induced autoimmune-like hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56(4):958-976.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Chalasani  N, Fontana  RJ, Bonkovsky  HL,  et al; Drug Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN).  Causes, clinical features, and outcomes from a prospective study of drug-induced liver injury in the United States. Gastroenterology.2008;135(6):1924-1934.e1-e4. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2008.09.011.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Fujiwara  K, Fukuda  Y, Yokosuka  O.  Precise histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimen is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment of acute-onset autoimmune hepatitis. J Gastroenterol. 2008;43(12):951-958.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Pham  BN, Bemuau  J, Durand  F,  et al.  Eotaxin expression and eosinophil infiltrate in the liver of patients with drug-induced liver disease. J Hepatol. 2001;34(4):537-547.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Suzuki  A, Brunt  EM, Kleiner  DE,  et al.  The use of liver biopsy evaluation in discrimination of idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis versus drug-induced liver injury. Hepatology. 2011;54(3):931-939.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Buse  JB, Garber  A, Rosenstock  J,  et al.  Liraglutide treatment is associated with a low frequency and magnitude of antibody formation with no apparent impact on glycemic response or increased frequency of adverse events: results from the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes (LEAD) trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(6):1695-1702.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Danan  G, Benichou  C.  Causality assessment of adverse reactions to drugs, I: a novel method based on the conclusions of international consensus meetings: application to drug-induced liver injuries. J Clin Epidemiol. 1993;46(11):1323-1330.
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Czaja  AJ.  Autoantibody-negative autoimmune hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57(3):610-624.
PubMed   |  Link to Article

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Submit a Comment
Did Liraglutide induce Autoimmune Hepatitis?
Posted on September 2, 2014
Franco Folli, Sylka Rodovalho, Carmine Cardillo
Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas, USA; Division of Endocrinology, Pontificia Universidade de Campinas, Campinas, S.P., Brazil; Department of Inte
Conflict of Interest: None Declared
To the Editor: We have read with interest the case report by Dr. Kern and collaborators, entitled “Liraglutide-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis”. A young woman affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus and vitiligo, presented with acute hepatitis since 10 days. The patients had been treated with liraglutide, 1.2 mg/day, for 4 months before presentation. Prior to liraglutide, she had been treated with exenatide, 10 μg twice daily. Autoantibodies were absent and viral markers were negative. AST, ALT and bilirubin were elevated and 2 liver biopsies demonstrated the presence of portal and interface inflammation (lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils), and subsequently lobular necrosis. The Authors suggested that autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) secondary to antibodies toliraglutidewas the probable diagnosis (1).We believe that there might be an alternative explanation to the acute hepatitis in this patient. The occurrence of acute hepatitis in a young patient affected by diabetes and vitiligo, which is associated with AIH in approximately 2% of the cases, could also suggest autoantibody negative AIH (2). The time course of ALT and AST levels, depicted in Figure 3, had a biphasic behavior, with a drop of around 50% almost 2-3 weeks after cessation of liraglutide and a new elevation later on. At that point, prednisone was started leading to a dramatic reduction of liver enzymes. The second peak of enzyme elevation, occurring 28 to 30 days after the drug withdrawal, argues against liraglutide as the cause of this hepatitis (1, 3). Also, utilization of the RUCAM scale, a method for causality assessment of adverse reactions to drugs, suggests that the hepatitis in this case is unlikely related to liraglutide, given the final score of +1 (1, 3).Around 8% of patients treated with liraglutide will form anti-liraglutide antibodies, but the presence of those autoantibodies has not been demonstrated in this patient (1, 4). Therefore the mechanism hypothesized by the Authors, i.e. formation of a ternary complex between GLP-1, anti-liraglutide antibodies and GLP-1 receptor on the hepatocyte membrane, is lacking the supposed “primum movens”, i.e. anti-liraglutide antibodies. By contrast, the revised original diagnostic scoring system of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group suggests that autoantibody negative AIH is the most likely diagnosis in this patient, since her score is 14 or 15 (5).Recognizing the critical importance of continue pharmacovigilance , we suggest that scoring systems like the RUCAM and the IAIHG are employed to objectively evaluate suspected drug-induced liver injuries vs. autoimmune hepatitis (3,5).Sincerely.Franco FolliSylka RodovalhoCarmine CardilloReferences:1) Kern E, VanWagner LB, Yang GY, Rinella ME. Liraglutide-induced autoimmune hepatitis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Jun 1;174 (6):984-72) Teufel A, Weinmann A, Kahaly GJ et al. Concurrent autoimmune diseases in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010 Mar;44(3):208-133) Danan G, Benichou C . Causality assessment of adverse reactions to drugs--I. A novel method based on the conclusions of international consensus meetings: application to drug-induced liver injuries. J Clin Epidemiol. 1993 Nov;46 (11):1323-30.4) Buse JB, Garber A, Rosenstock J et al.Liraglutide treatment is associated with a low frequency and magnitude of antibody formation with no apparent impact on glycemic response or increased frequency of adverse events: results from the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes (LEAD) trials. J ClinEndocrinolMetab. 2011 Jun;96(6):1695-702.5) Czaja AJ. Autoantibody-negative autoimmune hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2012 Mar;57(3):610-24.
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