Accepted for Publication: January 29, 2014.
Published Online: April 7, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.561.
Study concept and design: Wiener, Schwartz, Woloshin.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Wiener, Woloshin.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Wiener, Slatore.
Obtained funding: Wiener.
Study supervision: Wiener, Schwartz, Woloshin.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) (PPO 08-401) and with resources from the White River Junction VA Medical Center, Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital, and Portland VA Medical Center. Dr Wiener is also supported by career development award K07 CA138772 from the National Cancer Institute, and Dr Slatore is supported by a VA HSR&D Career Development Award.
Role of the Sponsor: The Department of Veterans Affairs had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the views of the funding agencies, the Department of Veterans Affairs, or the US government.
Previous Presentation: An earlier version of this work was presented at the VA Health Services Research and Development National Conference; July 18, 2012; National Harbor, Maryland.
Additional Contributions: We thank Rick Hines, Amanda Donaher, and Jim Rothlender, MD, who created the Veterans Affairs FileMan algorithms to assemble our study cohorts, as well as Terry Kneeland, MPH, and Elaine Hickey, RN, who were instrumental in data abstraction for the initial medical record review. Mr Hines received financial compensation for his contributions. We recognize the contribution of our colleagues in the VA Outcomes Group and the writers’ group of the Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research, whose voluntary feedback enhanced both our thinking and the presentation of our results.