Accepted for Publication: January 4, 2014.
Published Online: April 7, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.20.
Study concept and design: Rhodes, Kenney, Friedman, Chearo, Wissoker, Polsky.
Acquisition of data: Rhodes, Friedman, Chearo, Polsky.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Rhodes, Kenney, Friedman, Saloner, Lawson, Wissoker, Polsky.
Drafting of the manuscript: Rhodes, Friedman, Saloner, Lawson, Chearo, Polsky.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Rhodes, Kenney, Friedman, Saloner, Chearo, Wissoker, Polsky.
Statistical analysis: Friedman, Saloner, Wissoker, Polsky.
Obtained funding: Rhodes, Kenney, Wissoker, Polsky.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kenney, Friedman, Wissoker.
Study supervision: Rhodes, Polsky.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (grant 70160). Dr Saloner acknowledges funding support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health and Society Scholars Program. Blue Cross Blue Shield Foundation of Massachusetts provided funding for a supplemental sample in Massachusetts.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organization had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Katherine Hempstead, PhD, MA, and Andrew Hyman, JD, served as Robert Wood Johnson Foundation program officers; Sandy Decker, PhD (National Center for Health Statistics), Joel Cantor, ScD (Rutgers University), Sharon Long, PhD (Urban Institute), and Richard Kronick, PhD (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Health and Human Services), provided helpful feedback on earlier drafts of the manuscript; Jianing Yang, MS (Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania), managed the database; Martha Van Haitsma, PhD, MA (University of Chicago Survey Lab), helped with study design; Tiana Pyer-Pereira, MA, and Alexander Hitch, MA (University of Chicago Survey Lab), supervised the field staff; and the field staff at the University of Chicago Survey Lab collected the audit data.